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THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE

 

Foreword to the 2007 Laws of Duplicate Bridge from José Damiani, President, World Bridge Federation:

I am proud and honoured to present the Laws of Duplicate Bridge 2007.

On behalf of the whole Executive Committee of the World Bridge Federation I wish first to congratulate and thank the Members of the Drafting Sub-Committee for undertaking and completing this onerous task.

They deserve the gratitude of the World Bridge community.

In the course of its development Duplicate Bridge has in many areas moved away from the earlier form of the game and it continues to do so. It is the duty of the World Bridge Federation to review the Laws regularly (the last time was in 1997) as a service to the Zones and the National Bridge Organisations, their Directors and their players.

We acknowledge with pleasure the historic co-operation of the Portland Club, the European Bridge League and the American Contract Bridge League.

Thus the WBF is happy to make its copyright freely available to the NBOs either in English or for translation into their own language.

NBOs may utilise the text on the Web Site (and this foreword if they wish), but if they print in any format they are requested to put the following

The Laws of Duplicate Bridge 2007
Copyright
World Bridge Federation
with thanks to the members of the Committee:

Max Bavin, Ralph Cohen, Grattan Endicott (co-ordinator) Joan Gerard, Ton Kooijman, Jeffrey Polisner, Antonio Riccardi, William Schoder, John Wignall (Chairman).

The historic co-operation of
The Portland Club
The European Bridge League
The American Contract Bridge League
is gratefully acknowledged

PREFACE TO THE 2007 LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE

The first Laws of Duplicate Bridge were published in 1928. There had been successive revisions in 1933, 1935, 1943, 1949, 1963, 1975, 1987, and 1997. In accordance with its By-Laws the World Bridge Federation promulgated the current edition in 2007.

Previously through the 1930s the Laws were promulgated by the Portland Club of London and the Whist Club of New York. From the 40s onwards the American Contract Bridge League Laws Commission replaced the Whist Club, while the British Bridge League and the European Bridge League supplemented the Portland Club’s efforts. The 1975 Laws were also promulgated by the World Bridge Federation, as they were in 1987 and 1997.

This latest revision supersedes the 1997 Code. Zonal authorities may implement the Code at any time after 1st January 2008 but before 30th September 2008.

Over the years there has been a marked increase in the expertise and experience of Directors, which has been recognized in the new Code by the increased responsibilities given to them. In addition, the Appeals process has been improved considerably by the introduction of the “Code of Practice for Appeals Committees”, to which attention is drawn.

The Drafting Committee notes with sorrow the passing of Ralph Cohen during the drafting of the new Code and the earlier passing of Edgar Kaplan. The assistance of Antonio Riccardi is acknowledged together with that of David Davenport of the Portland Club.

The Drafting Committee also acknowledges with gratitude the substantial contributions of Anna Gudge, Richard Hills and Rick Assad. The Code, however, would not have been produced without the dedication and hard work of its Coordinator, Grattan Endicott.

The Drafting Committee consisted of:

Max Bavin Ralph Cohen Joan Gerard Ton Kooijman Jeffrey Polisner William Schoder Grattan Endicott (Co-ordinator) John Wignall (Chairman)

John R. Wignall, MNZM

NBOs should be aware of the intention to publish an Appendix to the 2007 Laws giving illustrations and examples showing the working and intention of the Laws. It is the beginning of development of a revised 'jurisprudence'
 

INTRODUCTION TO THE 2007 LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE
 

The Laws are designed to define correct procedure and to provide an adequate remedy when there is a departure from correct procedure. They are primarily designed not as punishment for irregularities but rather for the rectification of situations where non-offenders may otherwise be damaged. Players should be ready to accept gracefully any rectification or adjusted score awarded by the Director.

There have been many developments in duplicate bridge over the last ten years and there are no signs that these changes have stopped. The task that confronted the Drafting Committee was to ensure the Laws were updated so as to cope with past changes and to establish a framework that can cope with future developments.

Directors have been given considerably more discretionary powers. There are fewer automatic penalties: they are replaced by the concept of rectification of a situation that unfortunately has arisen. Bridge is played in different ways in different countries so the Laws give more power to Regulating Authorities to make controlling regulations. This is particularly so in the area of Special Partnership Understandings, in itself a new concept. Artificial bidding is a fact of life so an attempt has been made to solve problems, or to allow Regulating Authorities to solve problems, that arise when something goes wrong.

We have tried to clarify the areas of responsibility of Regulating Authorities, Tournament Organizers and Directors and it is made clear that certain responsibilities may be either assigned or delegated.

Many headings present in the 1997 Laws have been removed in the interests of streamlining their appearance. Where headings remain they do not limit the application of any law, nor indeed does the omission of a cross-reference.

Established usage has been retained in regard to “may” do (failure to do it is not wrong), “does” (establishes correct procedure without suggesting that violation be penalized) “should” do (failure to do it is an infraction jeopardizing the infractor’s rights but not often penalized), “shall” do (a violation will incur a procedural penalty more often than not), “must” do (the strongest word, a serious matter indeed). Again, “must not” is the strongest prohibition, “shall not” is strong but “may not” is stronger – just short of “must not”.

For the avoidance of doubt, this Introduction and the Definitions that follow form part of the Laws. Finally, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, the singular includes the plural and the masculine includes the feminine, and vice versa.

DEFINITIONS

Adjusted Score — A score awarded by the Director (see Law 12). It is either “artificial” or “assigned”.

Alert — A notification, whose form may be specified by the Regulating Authority, to the effect that opponents may be in need of an explanation.
 
Artificial call — is a bid, double, or redouble that conveys information (not being information taken for granted by players generally) other than willingness to play in the denomination named or last named; or a pass which promises more than  a specified amount of strength or if it promises or denies values other than in the last suit named.

Auction — 1. The process of determining the contract by means of successive calls. It begins when the first call is made. 2. The aggregate of calls made (see Law 17).

Bid — an undertaking to win at least a specified number of odd tricks (tricks in excess of six) in a specified denomination.

Board — 1. A duplicate board as described in Law 2. 2. The four hands as originally dealt and placed in a duplicate board for play during a session (also referred to as a ‘deal’).

Call — Any bid, double, redouble or pass.

Cancelled — see “Withdrawn”.

Contestant — in an individual event, a player; in a pair event, two players playing as partners throughout the event; in a team event, four or more players playing as team-mates.

Contract — the undertaking by declarer’s side to win, at the denomination named, the number of odd tricks specified in the final bid, whether undoubled, doubled or redoubled. (See Law 22)

Deal — 1. The distribution of the pack to form the hands of the four players. 2. The cards so distributed  considered as a unit, including the auction and play thereof.

Declarer — the player who, for the side that makes the final bid, first bid the denomination named in the final bid. He becomes declarer when the opening lead is faced (but see Law 54A when the opening lead is made out of turn).

Defender — an opponent of (presumed) declarer.

Denomination — the suit or no trump specified in a bid.

Double — a call over an opponent’s bid increasing the scoring value of fulfilled or defeated contracts (see Laws 19A and 77).

Dummy — 1. Declarer’s partner. He becomes dummy when the opening lead is faced.  2. Declarer’s partner’s cards, once they are spread on the table after the opening lead.
 
Event — a contest of one or more sessions.

Extraneous — not part of the lawful procedures of the game.

Follow Suit — Play a card of the suit that has been led.
 
Game — 100 or more trick points scored on one deal.

Hand — the cards originally dealt to a player, or the remaining portion thereof.

Honour — any Ace, King, Queen, Jack or 10.

Infraction — a player’s breach of Law or of Lawful regulation.
 
International Matchpoint (IMP) — a unit of scoring awarded according to a schedule established in Law 78B.
 
Irregularity — a deviation from correct procedure inclusive of, but not limited to, those which  involve an infraction by a player.

Lead
— the first card played to a trick.

LHO — Left-hand opponent.
 
Matchpoint — a unit of scoring awarded to a contestant as a result of comparison with one or more other scores. See Law 78A.
 
Odd Trick — each trick to be won by declarer’s side in excess of six.
 
Opening Lead — the card led to the first trick.
 
Opponent — a player of the other side; a member of the partnership to which one is opposed.
 
Overtrick — each trick won by declarer’s side in excess of the contract.
 
Pack — the 52 playing cards with which the game is played.

Partner — the player with whom one plays as a side against the other two players at the table.

Partscore — 90 or fewer trick points scored on one deal.

Pass — a call specifying that a player does not, at that turn, elect to bid, double or redouble.
 
Penalty — (See also ‘Rectification’) — penalties are of two kinds: disciplinary those applied for the maintenance of courtesy and good order (see Law 91), and procedural penalties (additional to any rectification) awarded in the Director’s discretion in cases of procedural irregularities (see Law 90).

 Penalty card — a card subject to disposition under Law 50.

 Play — 1. The contribution of a card from one’s hand to a trick, including the first card, which is the lead.  2. The aggregate of plays made.  3. The period during which the cards are played.    4. The aggregate of the calls and plays on a board.

 Play period — commences when the opening lead on a board is faced; contestants’ rights and powers in the play period each expire as the relevant Law provides. The play period itself ends when the cards are removed from their slots on the subsequent board (or when the last board of a round is quitted).

 Premium Points — any points earned other than trick points (see Law 77).

 Psychic call (commonly ‘psych[e]‘ or ‘psychic’) — a deliberate and gross misstatement of honour strength and/or of suit length.

 Rectification — the remedial provisions to be applied when an irregularity has come to the Director’s attention.

 Redouble — a call over an opponent’s double, increasing the scoring value of fulfilled or defeated contracts (see Laws 19B and 77).

 Retracted — see “Withdrawn”.

 RHO — Right-hand opponent.

 Rotation — the clockwise progression of the normal turns to call or play; also the clockwise order in which, one at a time, the cards are recommended to be dealt.

 Round — a part of a session played without progression of players.

 Session — an extended period of play during which a number of boards, specified by the Tournament Organizer, is scheduled to be played. (May have different meanings as between Laws 4, 12C2 and 91.)

Side
— two players at a table who constitute a partnership against the other two players.

 Slam — A contract to win six odd tricks (called Small Slam), or to win seven odd tricks (called Grand Slam).

 Sorted deck — a pack of cards not randomized from its prior condition.

 Suit — One of four groups of cards in the pack, each group comprising thirteen cards and having a characteristic symbol: spades (♠), hearts (♥), diamonds (♦), clubs (♣).

Team — two or more pairs playing in different compass directions at different tables but for a common score (applicable regulations may permit teams of more than four members).

Trick — the unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, composed unless flawed, of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

Trick Points — points scored by declarer’s side for fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).

Trump — each card of the denomination named in a suit contract.
 
Turn — the correct time at which a player is due to call or play.

Undertrick — each trick by which declarer’s side falls short of fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).

Unintended — involuntary; not under control of the will; not the intention of the player at the moment of his action.
 
Vulnerability — the conditions for assigning premiums and undertrick penalties (see Law 77).

Withdrawn — actions said to be ‘withdrawn’ include actions that are ‘cancelled’ and cards that are ‘retracted’.


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  THE 2007 LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE  
     
LAW 1 - THE PACK - RANK OF CARDS AND SUITS LAW 2 - THE DUPLICATE BOARDS LAW 3 - ARRANGEMENT OF TABLES
LAW 4 - PARTNERSHIPS LAW 5 - ASSIGNMENT OF SEATS LAW 6 -THE SHUFFLE AND DEAL
LAW 7 - CONTROL OF BOARD AND CARDS LAW 8 - SEQUENCE OF ROUNDS LAW 9 - PROCEDURE FOLLOWING AN IRREGULARITY
LAW 10 - ASSESSMENT OF RECTIFICATION LAW 11 - FORFEITURE OF THE RIGHT TO RECTIFICATION LAW 12 - DIRECTOR’S DISCRETIONARY POWERS
LAW 13 - INCORRECT NUMBER OF CARDS LAW 14 - MISSING CARD LAW 15 - PLAY OF A WRONG BOARD
     
LAW 16 AUTHORIZED AND UNAUTHORIZED INFORMATION LAW 17 - THE AUCTION PERIOD LAW 18 - BIDS
LAW 19 - DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES LAW 20 - REVIEW AND EXPLANATION OF CALLS LAW 21 - CALL BASED ON MISINFORMATION
LAW 22 – PROCEDURE AFTER THE BIDDING HAS ENDED LAW 23 - AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL DAMAGE LAW 24 - CARD EXPOSED OR LED PRIOR TO PLAY PERIOD
LAW 25 - LEGAL AND ILLEGAL CHANGES OF CALL LAW 26 - CALL WITHDRAWN, LEAD RESTRICTIONS LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID
LAW 28 - CALLS CONSIDERED TO BE IN ROTATION LAW 29 - PROCEDURE AFTER A CALL OUT OF ROTATION LAW 30 - PASS OUT OF ROTATION
LAW 31 - BID OUT OF ROTATION LAW 32 - DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE OUT OF ROTATION LAW 33 - SIMULTANEOUS CALLS
LAW 34 - RETENTION OF RIGHT TO CALL LAW 35 - INADMISSIBLE CALLS LAW 36 - INADMISSIBLE DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES
LAW 37 - ACTION VIOLATING OBLIGATION TO PASS LAW 38 - BID OF MORE THAN SEVEN LAW 39 - CALL AFTER THE FINAL PASS
LAW 40 - PARTNERSHIP UNDERSTANDINGS    
  LAW 41 - COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY LAW 42 - DUMMY’S RIGHTS
LAW 43 - DUMMY’S LIMITATIONS LAW 44 - SEQUENCE AND PROCEDURE OF PLAY LAW 45 - CARD PLAYED
LAW 46 – INCOMPLETE OR ERRONEOUS CALL OF A CARD FROM DUMMY LAW 47 - RETRACTION OF CARD PLAYED LAW 48 - EXPOSURE OF DECLARER’S CARDS
LAW 49 - EXPOSURE OF A DEFENDER’S CARDS LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD LAW 51 - TWO OR MORE PENALTY CARDS
LAW 52 - FAILURE TO LEAD OR PLAY A PENALTY CARD LAW 53 - LEAD OUT OF TURN ACCEPTED LAW 54 - FACED OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN
LAW 55 - DECLARER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN LAW 56 - DEFENDER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN LAW 57 - PREMATURE LEAD OR PLAY
LAW 58 - SIMULTANEOUS LEADS OR PLAYS LAW 59 - INABILITY TO LEAD OR PLAY AS REQUIRED LAW 60 - PLAY AFTER AN ILLEGAL PLAY
LAW 61 - FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUIT - INQUIRIES CONCERNING A REVOKE LAW 62 - CORRECTION OF A REVOKE LAW 63 - ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE
LAW 64 - PROCEDURE AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE LAW 65 - ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS
LAW 67 - DEFECTIVE TRICK LAW 68 - CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS LAW 69 - AGREED CLAIM OR CONCESSION
LAW 70 - CONTESTED CLAIM OR CONCESSION LAW 71 - CONCESSION CANCELLED LAW 72 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES
     
LAW 73 - COMMUNICATION LAW 74 - CONDUCT AND ETIQUETTE LAW 75 - MISTAKEN EXPLANATION OR MISTAKEN CALL
LAW 76 - SPECTATORS LAW 77 – DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING TABLE LAW 78 - METHODS OF SCORING AND CONDITIONS OF CONTEST
LAW 79 - TRICKS WON LAW 80 - REGULATION AND ORGANIZATION LAW 81 - THE DIRECTOR
LAW 82 - RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS OF PROCEDURE LAW 83 - NOTIFICATION OF THE RIGHT TO APPEAL LAW 84 - RULINGS ON AGREED FACTS
LAW 85 - RULINGS ON DISPUTED FACTS LAW 86 - IN TEAM PLAY OR SIMILAR LAW 87 - FOULED BOARD
LAW 88 - AWARD OF INDEMNITY POINTS LAW 89 - RECTIFICATION IN INDIVIDUAL EVENTS LAW 90 - PROCEDURAL PENALTIES
LAW 91 - PENALIZE OR SUSPEND LAW 92 - RIGHT TO APPEAL LAW 93 - PROCEDURES OF APPEAL


LAW 1 - THE PACK - RANK OF CARDS AND SUITS

Duplicate Bridge is played with a pack of 52 cards, consisting of 13 cards in each of four suits. The suits rank downward in the order spades (♠), hearts (♥), diamonds (♦), clubs (♣).
 The Cards of each suit rank downward in the order Ace, King, Queen, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2.

LAW 2 - THE DUPLICATE BOARDS
 
A duplicate board containing a pack is provided for each deal to be played during a session. Each board is numbered and has four pockets to hold the four hands, designated North, East, South and West. The dealer and vulnerability are designated as follows:

North Dealer

Boards 1 5 9

13

East Dealer

Boards 2 6 10

14

South Dealer

Boards 3 7 11

15

West Dealer

Boards 4 8 12

16

Neither Side Vulnerable

Boards 1 8 11 14

North-South Vulnerable

Boards 2 5 12

15

East-West Vulnerable

Boards 3 6 9

16

Both Sides Vulnerable

Boards 4 7 10

13

The same sequence is repeated for Boards 17-32 and for each subsequent group of 16 boards. No board that fails to conform to these conditions should be used. If such board is used, however, the conditions marked on it apply for that session.

LAW 3 - ARRANGEMENT OF TABLES

Four players play at each table, and tables are numbered in a sequence established by the Director. He designates one direction as North; other compass directions assume the normal relationship to North.

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LAW 4 - PARTNERSHIPS

The four players at each table constitute two partnerships or sides, North-South against East-West. In pair or team events the contestants enter as pairs or teams respectively and retain the same partnerships throughout a session (except in the case of substitutions authorised by the Director). In individual events each player enters separately, and partnerships change during a session.

LAW 5 - ASSIGNMENT OF SEATS

A. Initial Position

The Director assigns an initial position to each contestant (individual, pair or team) at the start of a session. Unless otherwise directed, the members of each pair or team may select seats among those assigned to them by mutual agreement. Having once selected a compass direction, a player may change it within a session only upon instruction or with permission of the Director.

B. Change of Direction or Table

 Players change their initial compass direction or proceed to another table in accordance with the Director’s instructions. The Director is responsible for clear announcement of instructions; each player is responsible for moving when and as directed and for occupying the correct seat after each change.

LAW 6 -THE SHUFFLE AND DEAL

A. The Shuffle.

Before play starts, each pack is thoroughly shuffled. There is a cut if either opponent so requests.

B. The Deal

 The cards must be dealt face down, one card at a time, into four hands of thirteen cards each; each hand is then placed face down in one of the four pockets of the board. The recommended procedure is that the cards be dealt in rotation, clockwise.

C. Representation of Both Pairs

 A member of each side should be present during the shuffle and deal unless the Director instructs otherwise.

D. New Shuffle and Re-deal

  1. If it is ascertained before the auction first begins on a board that the cards have been incorrectly dealt or that during the shuffle and deal a player could have seen the face of a card belonging to another player there shall be a new shuffle and deal. Thereafter Law 16C applies to the accidental sighting of a card belonging to another player’s hand before completion of the play of the board (but see Law 24). Any illegally dealt board is a fouled board, and for any other irregularity see the relevant Law.

  2. Unless the purpose of the tournament is the replay of past deals no result may stand if the cards are dealt without shuffle from a sorted deck* or if the deal has been imported from a different session. (These provisions shall not prevent arrangements, where desired, for exchange of boards between tables.)

  3. Subject to Law 22A, there must be a new shuffle and a redeal when required by the Director for any reason compatible with the Laws (but see Law 86C).

E. Director’s Option on Shuffling and Dealing

  1. The Director may instruct that the shuffle and deal be performed at each table immediately before play starts.

  2. The Director may himself perform the shuffle and deal in advance.
     

  3. The Director may have his assistants or other appointed agents perform the shuffle and deal in advance.

  4. The Director may require a different method of dealing or pre-dealing to produce the same wholly random expectations as from A and B above.

F. Duplication of Board. If required by the conditions of play, one or more exact copies of each original deal may be made under the Director’s instructions. When he so instructs there shall normally be no redeal of a board (although the Director has powers to order it).

* A ‘sorted deck’ is a pack of cards not randomized from its prior condition.

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LAW 7 - CONTROL OF BOARD AND CARDS

A. Placement of Board.

 When a board is to be played it is placed in the centre of the table until play is completed.

B. Removal of Cards from Board

  1. Each player takes a hand from the pocket corresponding to his compass position.

  2. Each player counts his cards face down to be sure he has exactly thirteen; after that, and before making a call, he must inspect thefaces of his cards.

  3. During play each player retains possession of his own cards, not permitting them to be mixed with those of any other player. No player shall touch any cards other than his own (but declarer may play dummy’s cards in accordance with Law 45) during or after play except by permission of the Director.

C. Returning Cards to Board

After play has finished, each player should shuffle his original thirteen cards, after which he restores them to the pocket corresponding to his compass position. Thereafter no hand shall be removed from the board unless a member of each side, or the Director, is present.

D. Responsibility for Procedures

. Any contestant remaining at a table throughout a session is primarily responsible for maintaining proper conditions of play at the table.

LAW 8 - SEQUENCE OF ROUNDS

A. Movement of Boards and Players

  1. The Director instructs the players as to the proper movement of boards and progression of contestants.

  2. Unless the Director instructs otherwise, the North player at each table is responsible for moving the boards just completed at his table to the proper table for the following round.

B. End of Round

  1. In general, a round ends when the Director gives the signal for the start of the following round; but if any table has not completed play by that time, the round continues for that table until there has been a progression of players.

  2. When the Director exercises his authority to postpone play of a board, for that board the round does not end for the players concerned until the board has been played and the score agreed and recorded or the Director has cancelled the play of the board.

C. End of Last Round and End of Session

. The last round of a session, and the session itself, ends for each table when play of all boards scheduled at that table has been completed, and when all scores have been entered without objection.

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LAW 9 - PROCEDURE FOLLOWING AN IRREGULARITY

A. Drawing Attention to an Irregularity

  1. Unless prohibited by Law, any player may draw attention to an irregularity during the auction period, whether or not it is his turn to call.

  2. Unless prohibited by Law, declarer or either defender may draw attention to an irregularity that occurs during the play period. For incorrectly pointed card see Law 65B3.

  3. When an irregularity has occurred dummy may not draw attention to it during the play period but may do so after play of the hand is concluded. However any player, including dummy, may attempt to prevent another player’s committing an irregularity (but for dummy subject to Laws 42 and 43).

  4. There is no obligation to draw attention to an infraction of law committed by one’s own side (but see Law 20F5 for correction of partner’s apparently mistaken explanation).

B. After Attention Is Drawn to an Irregularity

1. (a) The Director should be summoned at once when attention is drawn to an irregularity.

(b) Any player, including dummy, may summon the Director after attention has been drawn to an irregularity.

(c) Summoning the Director does not cause a player to forfeit any rights to which he might otherwise be entitled.

 

(d) The fact that a player draws attention to an irregularity committed by his side does not affect the rights of the opponents.

2. No player shall take any action until the Director has explained all matters in regard to rectification.

C. Premature Correction of an Irregularity

Any premature correction of an irregularity by the offender may subject him to a further rectification (see the lead restrictions in Law 26).

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LAW 10 - ASSESSMENT OF RECTIFICATION

A. Right to Determine Rectification

The Director alone has the right to determine rectifications when applicable. Players do not have the right to determine (or waive – see Law 81C5) rectifications on their own initiative.

B. Cancellation of Enforcement or Waiver of Rectification

The Director may allow or cancel any enforcement or waiver of a rectification made by the players without his instructions.

C. Choice after Irregularity

  1. When these Laws provide an option after an irregularity, the Director shall explain all the options available.

  2. If a player has an option after an irregularity, he must make his selection without consulting partner.

  3. When these Laws provide the innocent side with an option after an irregularity committed by an opponent, it is appropriate to select the most advantageous action.

  4. Subject to Law 16D2, after rectification of an infraction it is appropriate for the offenders to make any call or play advantageous to their side, even though they thereby appear to profit through their own infraction (but see Laws 27 and 50).

LAW 11 - FORFEITURE OF THE RIGHT TO RECTIFICATION

A. Action by Non-Offending Side

The right to rectification of an irregularity may be forfeited if either member of the non-offending side takes any action before summoning the Director. The Director does so rule, for example, when the non-offending side may have gained through subsequent action taken by an opponent in ignorance of the relevant provisions of the law.

B. Penalty after Forfeiture of the Right to Rectification.

 Even after the right to rectification has been forfeited under this Law, the Director may assess a procedural penalty (see Law 90).

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LAW 12 - DIRECTOR’S DISCRETIONARY POWERS

A. Power to Award an Adjusted Score.

 On the application of a player within the period established under Law 92B or on his own initiative the Director may award an adjusted score when these Laws empower him to do so (in team play see Law 86). This includes:

  1. The Director may award an adjusted score when he judges that these Laws do not provide indemnity to a non-offending contestant for the particular type of violation committed by an opponent.

  2. The Director awards an artificial adjusted score if no rectification can be made that will permit normal play of the board (see C2 below).

  3. The Director may award an adjusted score if there has been an incorrect rectification of an irregularity.

B. Objectives of Score Adjustment

  1. The objective of score adjustment is to redress damage to a non-offending side and to take away any advantage gained by an offending side through its infraction. Damage exists when, because of an infraction, an innocent side obtains a table result less favourable than would have been the expectation had the infraction not occurred – but see C1(b).

  2. The Director may not award an adjusted score on the ground that the rectification provided in these Laws is either unduly severe or advantageous to either side.

C. Awarding an Adjusted Score

1. (a) When after an irregularity the Director is empowered by these laws to adjust a score and is able to award an assigned adjusted score, he does so. Such a score replaces the score obtained in play.

(b) If, subsequent to the irregularity, the non-offending side has contributed to its own damage by a serious error (unrelated to the infraction) or by wild or gambling action it does not receive relief in the adjustment for such part of the damage as is self-inflicted. The offending side should be awarded the score that it would have been allotted as the consequence of its infraction only.

 

(c) In order to do equity, and unless the Regulating Authority forbids it, an assigned adjusted score may be weighted to reflect the probabilities of a number of potential results.

 

(d) If the possibilities are numerous or not obvious, the Director may award an artificial adjusted score.

 

(e) In its discretion the Regulating Authority may apply all or part of the following procedure in place of (c):

 

(i) The score assigned in place of the actual score for a non-offending side is the most favourable result that was likely had the irregularity not occurred.

(ii) For an offending side the score assigned is the most unfavourable result that was at all probable.

(f) The scores awarded to the two sides need not balance.

2. (a) When owing to an irregularity no result can be obtained [and seeC1(d)] the Director awards an artificial adjusted score according to responsibility for the irregularity: average minus (at most 40% of the available matchpoints in pairs) to a contestant directly at fault, average (50% in pairs) to a contestant only partly at fault, and average plus (at least 60% in pairs) to a contestant in no way at fault.

(b) When the Director awards an artificial adjusted score of average plus or minus at international match points that score is normally plus or minus 3 imps, but this may be varied as Law 86A allows.

 

(c) The foregoing is modified for a non-offending contestant that obtains a session score exceeding 60% of the available matchpoints or for an offending contestant that obtains a session score that is less than 40% of the available matchpoints (or the equivalent in imps). Such contestants are awarded the percentage obtained (or the equivalent in imps) on the other boards of that session.

  1. In individual events the Director enforces the rectifications in these Laws, and the provisions requiring the award of adjusted scores, equally against both members of the offending side even though only one of them may be responsible for the irregularity. But the Director shall not award a procedural penalty against the offender’s partner if of the opinion that he is in no way to blame.

  2. When the Director awards non-balancing adjusted scores in knockout play, each contestant’s score on the board is calculated separately and the average of them is assigned to each.

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LAW 13 - INCORRECT NUMBER OF CARDS

A. Director Deems Normal Play

When the Director determines that one or more hands of the board contained an incorrect number of cards (but see Law 14) and a player with an incorrect hand has made a call, then when the Director deems that the deal can be corrected and played the deal may be so played with no change of call. At the end of play the Director may award an adjusted score.

B. Adjusted Score and Possible Penalty

Otherwise when a call has been made the Director shall award an adjusted score and may penalize an offender.

C. Play Completed

When it is determined after play ends that a player’s hand originally contained more than 13 cards with another player holding fewer (but see Law 13F), the result must be cancelled and an adjusted score awarded (Law 86D may apply). An offending contestant is liable to a procedural penalty.

D. No Call Made

If a player is found to have an incorrect number of cards and no call has been made on his hand:

  1. The Director shall correct the discrepancy and, if no player will then have seen another’s card, shall require that the board be played normally.

  2. When the Director determines that one or more pockets of the board contained an incorrect number of cards and a player has seen one or more cards of another player’s hand, if the Director deems:

(a) that the unauthorized information is unlikely to interfere with normal bidding or play, the Director allows the board to be played and scored. If he then considers the information has affected the outcome of the board the Director shall adjust the score and may penalize an offender.

 

(b) that the unauthorized information gained thereby is of sufficient importance to interfere with normal bidding or play the Director shall award an artificial adjusted score and may penalize an offender.

 

E. Placement or Movement of Card

When under this Law the Director requires play to continue, knowledge of the placement or movement of a card by the Director is unauthorized information for the partner of a player whose hand contained an incorrect number of cards.

F. Surplus Card

Any surplus card not part of the deal is removed if found. The auction and play continue unaffected. If such a card is found to have been played to a quitted trick an adjusted score may be awarded.

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LAW 14 - MISSING CARD

A. Hand Found Deficient before Play Commences

When one or more hand(s) is/are found to contain fewer than 13 cards, with no hand having more than 13, before the opening lead is faced, the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:

  1. if the card is found, it is restored to the deficient hand.

  2. if the card cannot be found, the Director reconstructs the deal by substituting another pack.

  3. the auction and play continue normally without alteration of any of the calls made, the restored hand being deemed to have contained all of its cards continuously throughout.

B. Hand Found Deficient Afterwards

When one or more hand(s) is/are found to contain fewer than 13 cards, with no hand having more than 13, at any time after the opening lead is faced (until the end of the Correction Period), the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:

  1. if the card is found among the played cards, Law 67 applies.

  2. if the card is found elsewhere, it is restored to the deficient hand. Rectification and/or penalties may apply (see 4 following).

  3. if the card cannot be found, the deal is reconstructed using another pack. Rectification and/or penalties may apply (see 4 following).

  4. a card restored to a hand under the provisions of Section B of this Law is deemed to have belonged continuously to the deficient hand. It may become a penalty card (Law 50), and failure to have played it may constitute a revoke.

C. Information from Replacement of a Card

Knowledge of the replacement of a card is unauthorized for the partner of a player whose hand contained an incorrect number of cards.

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LAW 15 - PLAY OF A WRONG BOARD

A. Players Have Not Previously Played Board

If players play a board not designated for them to play in the current round (but see C):

  1. The Director normally allows the score to stand if none of the four players have previously played the board.

  2. The Director may require both pairs to play the correct board against one another later.

B. One or More Players Have Previously Played Board

If any player plays a board he has previously played, with the correct opponents or otherwise, his second score on the board is cancelled both for his side and his opponents, and the Director shall award an artificial adjusted score to the contestants deprived of the opportunity to earn a valid score.

C. Discovered during Auction Period

If, during the auction period, the Director discovers that a contestant is playing a board not designated for him to play in the current round, he shall cancel the auction, ensure that the correct contestants are seated and that they are informed of their rights both now and at future rounds. A second auction begins. Players must repeat the calls they made previously. If any call differs in any way from the corresponding call in the first auction the Director shall cancel the board. Otherwise the auction and play continue normally. The Director may award a procedural penalty (and an adjusted score) if of the opinion that there has been a purposeful attempt by either side to preclude normal play of the board.

LAW 16 AUTHORIZED AND UNAUTHORIZED INFORMATION

A. Players’ Use of Information

1. A player may use information in the auction or play if:

 

(a) it derives from the legal calls and plays of the current board (including illegal calls and plays that are accepted) and is unaffected by unauthorized information from another source; or
(b) it is authorized information from a withdrawn action (see D); or

(c) it is information specified in any law or regulation to be authorized or, when not otherwise specified, arising from the legal procedures authorized in these laws and in regulations (but see B1
following); or

(d) it is information that the player possessed before he took his hand from the board (Law 7B) and the Laws do not preclude his use of this information.

  1. Players may also take account of their estimate of their own score, of the traits of their opponents, and any requirement of the tournament regulations.

  2. No player may base a call or play on other information (such information being designated extraneous).

  3. If there is a violation of this law causing damage the Director adjusts the score in accordance with Law 12C.

B. Extraneous Information from Partner

1. (a) After a player makes available to his partner extraneous information that may suggest a call or play, as for example by a remark, a question, a reply to a question, an unexpected* alert or failure to
alert, or by unmistakable hesitation, unwonted speed, special emphasis,tone, gesture, movement, or mannerism, the partner may not choose from among logical alternatives one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the extraneous information.

(b) A logical alternative action is one that, among the class of players in question and using the methods of the partnership, would be given serious consideration by a significant proportion of such players, of whom it is judged some might select it.

  1. When a player considers that an opponent has made such information available and that damage could well result he may announce, unless prohibited by the Regulating Authority (which may require that the Director be called), that he reserves the right to summon the Director later (the opponents should summon the Director immediately if they dispute the fact that unauthorized information might have been conveyed).

  2. When a player has substantial reason to believe that an opponent who had a logical alternative has chosen an action that could have been suggested by such information, he should summon the Director when play ends**. The Director shall assign an adjusted score (see Law 12C) if he  considers that an infraction of law has resulted in an advantage for the offender.

C. Extraneous Information from Other Sources

      1. When a player accidentally receives unauthorized information about a board he is playing or has yet to play, as by looking at the wrong hand; by overhearing calls, results or remarks; by seeing cards at another table; or by seeing a card belonging to another player at his own table before the auction begins, the Director should be notified forthwith, preferably by the recipient of the information.

    2. If the Director considers that the information could interfere with normal play he may, before any call has been made:

a) adjust the players’ positions at the table, if the type of contest and scoring permit, so that the player with information about one hand will hold that hand; or

(b) if the form of competition allows of it order the board redealt for those contestants; or

(c) allow completion of the play of the board standing ready to award an adjusted score if he judges that unauthorized information may have affected the result; or
(d) award an artificial adjusted score.

3. If such unauthorized information is received after the first call in the auction has been made and before completion of the play of the board the Director proceeds as in 2(c).

D. Information from Withdrawn Calls and Plays

When a call or play has been withdrawn as these laws provide:

  1. For a non-offending side, all information arising from a withdrawn action is authorized, whether the action be its own or its opponents’.

  2. For an offending side, information arising from its own withdrawn action and from withdrawn actions of the non-offending side is unauthorized. A player of an offending side may not choose from among logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the unauthorized information.

* i.e. unexpected in relation to the basis of his action.

** it is not an infraction to call the Director earlier or later.

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LAW 17 - THE AUCTION PERIOD

A. Auction Period Starts

The auction period on a deal begins for a side when either partner withdraws his cards from the board.

B. The First Call

The player designated by the board as dealer makes the first call.

C. Successive Calls

The player to dealer’s left makes the second call, and thereafter each player calls in turn in a clockwise rotation.

D. Cards from Wrong Board

  1. A call is cancelled if it is made by a player on cards that he has picked up from a wrong board.

    1. After looking at the correct hand the offender calls again and the auction continues normally from that point. If offender’s LHO has called over the cancelled call the Director shall award artificial adjusted scores when offender’s substituted call differs* from his cancelled call (offender’s LHO must repeat the previous call) or if the offender’s partner has subsequently called over the cancelled call.

  2. If the offender subsequently repeats his call on the board from which he mistakenly drew his cards the Director may allow that board to be played normally, but the Director shall award artificial adjusted scores when offender’s call differs* from his original cancelled call.

  3. A procedural penalty (Law 90) may be assessed in addition to rectifications under 2 and 3 above.

E. End of Auction Period

  1. The auction and the auction period end as Law 22 provides.

  2. When a call has been followed by three passes the auction does not end if one of those passes was out of rotation, depriving a player of his right to call at that turn. When this occurs the auction reverts to the player who missed his turn, all subsequent passes are cancelled and the auction proceeds normally. Law 16D applies to the cancelled calls, any player who has passed out of rotation being an offender.

* For example, a substituted call differs if its meaning is much
different or if it is psychic.

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LAW 18 - BIDS

A. Proper Form

A bid designates a number of odd tricks (tricks in excess of six), from one to seven, and a denomination. (Pass, double and redouble are calls but not bids.)

B. To Supersede a Bid

A bid supersedes a previous bid if it designates either the same number of odd tricks in a higher-ranking denomination or a greater number of odd tricks in any denomination.

C. Sufficient Bid

A bid that supersedes the last preceding bid is a sufficient bid.

D. Insufficient Bid

A bid that fails to supersede the last preceding bid is an insufficient bid.

E. Rank of the Denominations

The rank of the denominations in descending order is: no trump, spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs.

F. Different Methods

Regulating Authorities may authorize different methods of making calls.

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LAW 19 - DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES

A. Doubles

  1. A player may double only the last preceding bid. That bid must have been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must not have intervened.

  2. In doubling, a player should not state the number of odd tricks or the denomination. The only correct form is the single word “Double”.

  3. If a player, in doubling, incorrectly states the bid, or the number of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to have doubled the bid as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized Information — may apply.)

B. Redoubles

  1. A player may redouble only the last preceding double. That double must have been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must not have intervened.

  2. In redoubling, a player should not state the number of odd tricks or the denomination. The only correct form is the single word “Redouble”.

  3. If a player, in redoubling, incorrectly states the doubled bid, or the number of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to have redoubled the bid as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized Information — may apply.)

C. Double or Redouble Superseded

Any double or redouble is superseded by a subsequent legal bid.

D. Scoring a Doubled or Redoubled Contract

If a doubled or redoubled bid is not followed by a subsequent legal bid, scoring values are increased as provided in Law 77.

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LAW 20 - REVIEW AND EXPLANATION OF CALLS

A. Call Not Clearly Recognized

A player may require clarification forthwith if he is in doubt what call has been made.

B. Review of Auction during Auction Period

During the auction period, a player is entitled to have all previous calls restated* when it is his turn to call, unless he is required by law to pass. Alerts should be included when responding to the request. A player may not ask for a partial review of previous calls and may not halt the review before it is completed.

C. Review after Final Pass

  1. After the final pass either defender has the right to ask if it is his opening lead (see Laws 47E and 41).

  2. Declarer** or either defender may, at his first turn to play, require all previous calls to be restated*. (See Laws 41B and 41C). As in B the player may not ask for only a partial restatement or halt the review.

D. Who May Review the Auction

A request to have calls restated* shall be responded to only by an opponent.

E. Correction of Error in Review

All players, including dummy or a player required by law to pass, are responsible for prompt correction of errors in restatement* (see Law 12C1 when an uncorrected review causes damage).

F. Explanation of Calls

  1. During the auction and before the final pass, any player may request, but only at his own turn to call, an explanation of the opponents’ prior auction. He is entitled to know about calls actually made, about relevant alternative calls available that were not made, and about relevant inferences from the choice of action where these are matters of partnership understanding. Except on the instruction of the Director replies should be given by the partner of the player who made the call in question. The partner of a player who asks a question may not ask a
    supplementary question until his turn to call or play. Law 16 may apply and the Regulating Authority may establish regulations for written explanations.
     

  2. After the final pass and throughout the play period, either defender at his own turn to play may request an explanation of the opposing auction. At his turn to play from his hand or from dummy declarer may request an explanation of a defender’s call or card play understandings. Explanations should be given on a like basis to 1 and by the partner of the player whose action is explained.

  3. Under 1 and 2 above a player may ask concerning a single call but Law 16B1 may apply.

  4. If a player subsequently realizes that his own explanation was erroneous or incomplete he must call the Director immediately. The Director applies Law 21B or Law 40B4.

  5. (a) A player whose partner has given a mistaken explanation may not correct the error during the auction, nor may he indicate in any manner that a mistake has been made. ‘Mistaken explanation’ here includes failure to alert or announce as regulations require or an alert (or an announcement) that regulations do not require.

(b) The player must call the Director and inform his opponents that, in his opinion, his partner’s explanation was erroneous (see Law 75) but only at his first legal opportunity, which is

(i) for a defender, at the end of the play.

(ii) for declarer or dummy, after the final pass of the auction.

6. If the Director judges that a player has based an action on misinformation given to him by an opponent see, as appropriate, Law 21 or Law 47E.

G. Incorrect Procedure

  1. It is improper to ask a question solely for partner’s benefit.

  2. Except as the Regulating Authority allows a player may not consult his own system card and notes during the auction and play periods, but see Law 40B2(b).

* When the calls are not spoken responders must ensure that it is clear to an enquiring opponent what calls have been made.

** Declarer’s first turn to play is from dummy unless accepting an opening lead out of turn.

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LAW 21 - CALL BASED ON MISINFORMATION

A. Call Based on Caller’s Misunderstanding

No rectification or redress is due to a player who acts on the basis of his own misunderstanding.

B. Call Based on Misinformation from an Opponent

1. (a) Until the end of the auction period and provided that his partner has not subsequently called, a player may change a call without other rectification for his side when the Director judges that the decision to make the call could well have been influenced by misinformation given to the player by an opponent (see Law 17E). Failure to alert promptly where an alert is required by the Regulating Authority is deemed misinformation.

(b) The Director is to presume Mistaken Explanation rather than Mistaken Call in the absence of evidence to the contrary.

  1. When a player elects to change a call because of misinformation (as in 1 preceding), his LHO may then in turn change any subsequent call he may have made, without other rectification unless at the end of the hand the Director judges his withdrawn call to have conveyed such information as to damage the non-offending side in which case Law 16D applies.

  2. When it is too late to change a call and the Director judges that the offending side gained an advantage from the irregularity he awards an adjusted score.

     

LAW 22 – PROCEDURE AFTER THE BIDDING HAS ENDED

A. End of Auction

The auction ends when:

  1. all four players pass (but see Law 25). The hands are returned to the board without play. There shall not be a redeal.

  2. one or more players having bid, there are three consecutive passes in rotation subsequent to the last bid. The last bid becomes the contract (but see Law 19D).

B. End of Auction Period

  1. The auction period ends when, subsequent to the end of the auction as in A2, either defender faces an opening lead. (If the lead is out of turn then see Law 54). The interval between the end of the auction and the end of the auction period is designated the Clarification Period.

  2. If no player bids (see A1) the auction period ends when all four hands have been returned to the board.

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LAW 23 - AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL DAMAGE

Whenever, in the opinion of the Director, an offender could have been aware at the time of his irregularity that this could well damage the non-offending side, he shall require the auction and play to continue (if not completed). When the play has been completed the Director awards an adjusted score if he considers the offending side has gained an advantage through the irregularity*.

* as, for example, by partner’s enforced pass.

LAW 24 - CARD EXPOSED OR LED PRIOR TO PLAY PERIOD

When the Director determines that during the auction period because of a player’s own error one or more cards of that player’s hand were in position for the face to be seen by his partner, the Director shall require that every such card be left face up on the table until the auction period ends. Information from cards thus exposed is authorized for the non-offending side but unauthorized for the offending side. If the offender becomes declarer or dummy the cards are picked up and returned to the hand. If the offender becomes a defender every such card becomes a penalty card (see Law 50), then:

A. Low Card Not Prematurely Led

If it is a single card below the rank of an honour and not prematurely led, there is no further rectification.

B. Single Card of Honour Rank or Card Prematurely Led

If it is a single card of honour rank or is any card prematurely led offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when a pass damages the non-offending side).

C. Two or More Cards Are Exposed

If two or more cards are so exposed offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when a pass damages the non-offending side).

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LAW 25 - LEGAL AND ILLEGAL CHANGES OF CALL

A. Unintended Call

  1. Until his partner makes a call, a player may substitute his intended call for an unintended call but only if he does so, or attempts to do so, without pause for thought. The second (intended) call stands and is subject to the appropriate Law.

  2. No substitution of call may be made when his partner has made a subsequent call.

  3. If the auction ends before it reaches the player’s partner no substitution may occur after the end of the auction period (see Law 22).

  4. If a substitution is allowed the LHO may withdraw any call he made over the first call. Information from the withdrawn call is authorized only to his side. There is no further rectification.

B. Call Intended

  1. A substituted call not permitted by A may be accepted by the offender’s LHO. (It is accepted if LHO calls intentionally over it.) The first call is then withdrawn, the second call stands and the auction continues.
     

  2. Except as in 1 a substitution not permitted by A is cancelled. The original call stands and the auction continues.

  3. Law 16D applies to a call withdrawn or cancelled.

LAW 26 - CALL WITHDRAWN, LEAD RESTRICTIONS

When an offending player’s call is withdrawn, and he chooses a different* final call for that turn, then if he becomes a defender:

A. Call Related to Specific Suit

if the withdrawn call related solely to a specified suit or suits (and no other suit), and

  1. if each such suit was specified in the legal auction by the same player there is no lead restriction, but see Law 16D.

  2. if any suit specified in the withdrawn call was not specified by the same player in the legal auction then, at offender’s partner’s first turn to lead (which may be the opening lead), declarer may either,

(a) require the offender’s partner to lead such a suit (if there are more than one declarer chooses the suit; or

 

(b) prohibit offender’s partner from leading (one) such suit. Such prohibition continues for as long as the offender’s partner retains the lead.

B. Other Withdrawn Calls

For other withdrawn calls, declarer may prohibit offender’s partner from leading any one suit at his first turn to lead, including the opening lead, such prohibition to continue for as long as offender’s partner retains the lead.

* A call repeated with a much different meaning shall be deemed a different call.

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LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID

A. Acceptance of Insufficient Bid

  1. Any insufficient bid may be accepted (treated as legal) at the option of offender’s LHO. It is accepted if that player calls.
     

  2. If a player makes an insufficient bid out of rotation, Law 31applies.

B. Insufficient Bid Not Accepted

If an insufficient bid in rotation is not accepted it must be corrected by the substitution of a legal call.

C. Replaced at Lowest Level by Bid, Double or Pass

  1. If the insufficient bid is replaced by a bid at the lowest legal level or double or pass that incorporates the information contained in the insufficient bid, the auction and play continues with the information arising from the withdrawn bid authorized for both sides (Law 16D does not apply), but see 2 following.

  2. At the end of the play the Director shall award an adjusted score if he judges that without assistance from the insufficient bid the contract could well have been different*, and the non-offending side is damaged.

D. Replaced by Any Other Call

  1. If the insufficient bid is replaced, except as 27C1 allows, by any bid or a pass the offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law 23
     

  2. If the insufficient bid is replaced by a double or redouble, except as 27C1 allows, the double or redouble must be withdrawn and replaced by a pass. The offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law 23.

E. Premature Replacement

If the offender replaces his insufficient bid before the Director has ruled on rectification, unless the insufficient bid is accepted as A allows, his substitution stands. The Director applies C, D or F,
accordingly.

F. Replaced with an Insufficient Bid

If the offender attempts to replace the insufficient bid with another insufficient bid the attempted call is cancelled and a pass is substituted. His partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law 23.

* as to number of odd tricks, denomination, or declarer

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LAW 28 - CALLS CONSIDERED TO BE IN ROTATION

A. RHO Required to Pass

A call is considered to be in rotation when it is made by a player at his RHO’s turn to call if that opponent is required by law to pass.

B. Call by Correct Player Cancelling Call Out of Rotation

A call is considered to be in rotation when made by a player whose turn it was to call before rectification has been assessed for a call out of rotation by an opponent. Making such a call forfeits the right to rectification for the call out of rotation. The auction proceeds as though the opponent had not called at that turn, but Law 16D2 applies.

LAW 29 - PROCEDURE AFTER A CALL OUT OF ROTATION

A. Forfeiture of Right to Rectification

Following a call out of rotation offender’s LHO may elect to call thereby forfeiting the right to any rectification.

B. Out-of-Rotation Call Cancelled

Unless A applies, a call out of rotation is cancelled and the auction reverts to the player whose turn it was to call. Offender may make any legal call in proper rotation, but his side may be subject to the
provisions for rectification in Law 30, 31 or 32.

C. Call Out of Rotation Is Artificial

If a call out of rotation is artificial, the provisions of Laws 30, 31 and 32 apply to the denomination(s) specified, rather than the denomination named.

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LAW 30 - PASS OUT OF ROTATION

When a player has passed out of rotation and the call is cancelled, the option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the following provisions apply (if the pass is artificial see C):

A. Before Any Player Has Bid

When a player has passed out of rotation before any player has bid the offender must pass when next it is his turn to call and Law 23 may apply.

B. After Any Player Has Bid

  1. When a pass out of rotation is made at offender’s RHO’s turn to call after any player has bid, offender must pass when next it is his turn to call.
     

  2. (a) When, after any player has bid, the offender passes out of rotation at his partner’s turn to call, the offender must pass whenever it is his turn to call, and Law 23 may apply.

b) Offender’s partner may make any sufficient bid, or may pass, but may not double or redouble at that turn, and Law 23 may apply.

3. After any player has bid a pass out of rotation at offender’s LHO’s turn to call is treated as a change of call. Law 25 applies.

C. When Pass Is Artificial

When a pass out of rotation is artificial or is a pass of an artificial call, Law 31, not Law 30, applies.

LAW 31 - BID OUT OF ROTATION

When a player has bid out of rotation, has passed artificially or has passed partner’s artificial call (see Law 30C), and the call is cancelled the option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the following
provisions apply:

A. RHO’s Turn

When the offender has called at his RHO’s turn to call, then:

  1. If that opponent passes, offender must repeat the call out of rotation, and when that call is legal there is no rectification.
     

  2. If that opponent makes a legal* bid, double or redouble, offender may make any legal call; when this call

 

(a) repeats the denomination of his bid out of rotation, offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23).

 

(b) does not repeat the denomination of his bid out of rotation, or if the call out of rotation was an artificial pass or a pass of partner’s artificial call, the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply, and offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (seeLaw 23).

 

B. Partner’s or LHO’s Turn

When the offender has bid at his partner’s turn to call, or at his LHO’s turn to call, if the offender has not previously called**, offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side). The lead restrictions of Law 26 may apply.

* An illegal call by RHO is rectified as usual.

**Later calls at LHO’s turn to call are treated as changes of call, and Law 25 applies.

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LAW 32 - DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE OUT OF ROTATION

A double or redouble out of rotation may be accepted at the option of the opponent next in rotation (see Law 29A), except that an inadmissible double or redouble may never be accepted (if offender’s LHO nevertheless calls see Law 36). If the call out of rotation is not accepted it is cancelled, the lead restriction in Law 26B may apply, and:

A. Made at Offender’s Partner’s Turn to Call

if a double or redouble out of rotation has been made when it was the offender’s partner’s turn to call the offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 if the pass damages the non-offending side).

B. Made at RHO’s Turn to Call

if a double or redouble out of rotation has been made at offender’s RHO’s turn to call, then:

  1. If offender’s RHO passes, offender must repeat his out-of-rotation double or redouble and there is no rectification unless the double or redouble is inadmissible, in which case Law 36 applies.

  2. If offender’s RHO bids, doubles or redoubles, the offender may in turn make any legal call but offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. See Law 23 if the pass damages the non-offending side.

LAW 33 - SIMULTANEOUS CALLS

A call made simultaneously with one made by the player whose turn it was to call is deemed to be a subsequent call.


LAW 34 - RETENTION OF RIGHT TO CALL


When following a call there have been three consecutive passes, one or more being out of rotation, Law 17E2 applies.
 

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LAW 35 - INADMISSIBLE CALLS

The following calls are inadmissible:

  1. A double or redouble not permitted by Law 19. Law 36 applies.

  2. A bid, double or redouble by a player required to pass. Law 37 applies.

  3. A bid of more than seven. Law 38 applies.
     

  4. A call after the final pass of the auction. Law 39 applies.
     

LAW 36 - INADMISSIBLE DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES

A. Offender’s LHO Calls before Rectification

If offender’s LHO calls before rectification of an inadmissible double or redouble the inadmissible call and all subsequent calls are cancelled. The auction reverts to the player whose turn it was to call and proceeds as though there had been no irregularity. The lead
restrictions in Law 26 do not apply.

B. Offender’s LHO does not Call before Rectification When A does not apply

  1. any double or redouble not permitted by Law 19 is cancelled.

  2. the offender must substitute a legal call, the auction continues, and the offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call.
     

  3. Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.

  4. if the call is out of turn the auction reverts to the player whose turn it was to call, the offender may make any legal call at his turn, and his partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.

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LAW 37 - ACTION VIOLATING OBLIGATION TO PASS

A. Offender’s LHO Calls before Rectification

If the inadmissible call was a bid or a double or redouble by a player required by law to pass (but not an action contrary to Law 19A1 or Law 19B1) and offender’s LHO calls before the Director has ruled on rectification, that call and all subsequent calls stand. If the offender
was required to pass for the remainder of the auction he must still pass at subsequent turns. The lead restrictions in Law 26 do not apply.

B. Offender’s LHO does not Call before Rectification When A does not apply:

  1. any bid, double or redouble, by a player required by law to pass is cancelled.

  2. a pass is substituted, the auction continues and each member of the offending side must pass whenever it is his turn to call. Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.

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LAW 38 - BID OF MORE THAN SEVEN

A. No Play Permissible.
 
No play of a contract of more than seven is ever permissible.

B. Bid and Subsequent Calls Cancelled.

  A bid of more than seven is cancelled together with any subsequent calls.

C. Offending Side Must Pass.

A pass must be substituted; the auction continues unless completed and each member of the offending side must pass whenever it is his turn to call.

D. Possible Lack of Recourse to Laws 23 and 26.
 
Law 23 may apply and the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply, except that if the offender’s LHO had called subsequent to the infraction and before rectification there is no recourse to these Laws.

LAW 39 - CALL AFTER THE FINAL PASS

A. Calls Cancelled

All calls after the final pass of the auction are cancelled.

B. Pass by Defender or Any Call by Declaring Side

 If offender’s LHO calls before rectification or if the infraction is a pass by a defender or any call by the future declarer or dummy there is no further rectification.

C. Other Action by Defender
 
If offender’s LHO has not called subsequent to the infraction and the infraction is a bid, double or redouble by a defender the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.

LAW 40 - PARTNERSHIP UNDERSTANDINGS

A. Players’ Systemic Agreements

1. (a) Partnership understandings as to the methods adopted by a partnership may be reached explicitly in discussion or implicitly through mutual experience or awareness of the players.
(b) Each partnership has a duty to make available its partnership understandings to opponents before commencing play against them. The Regulating Authority specifies the manner in which this shall be done.

2. Information conveyed to partner through such understandings must arise from the calls, plays and conditions of the current deal. Each player is entitled to take into account the legal auction and, subject to any exclusions in these laws, the cards he has seen. He is entitled to use information specified elsewhere in these laws to be authorized. (See Law 73C.)

3. A player may make any call or play without prior announcement provided that such call or play is not based on an undisclosed partnership understanding (see Law 40C1).

B. Special Partnership Understandings

1. (a) In its discretion the Regulating Authority may designate certain partnership understandings as “special partnership understandings”. A special partnership understanding is one whose meaning, in the opinion of the Regulating Authority, may not be readily understood  and anticipated by a significant number of players in the tournament.

(b) Whether explicit or implicit an agreement between partners is a partnership understanding. A convention is included, unless the Regulating Authority decides otherwise, among the agreements and treatments that constitute special partnership understandings as is the
case with any call that has an artificial meaning.

2. (a) The Regulating Authority is empowered without restriction to allow, disallow, or allow conditionally, any special partnership understanding. It may prescribe a System Card with or without supplementary sheets, for the prior listing of a partnership’s understandings, and regulate its use. The Regulating Authority may prescribe alerting procedures and/or other methods of disclosure of a partnership’s methods. It may vary the general requirement that the meaning of a call or play shall not alter by reference to the member of the partnership by whom it is made (such a regulation must not restrict style and judgement, only method).

b) Unless the Regulating Authority provides otherwise a player may not consult his own system card after the auction period commences until the end of play, except that players of the declaring side (only) may consult their own system card during the Clarification Period.

(c) Unless the Regulating Authority provides otherwise a player may consult his opponent’s system card
 (i) prior to the commencement of the auction
(ii) during the Clarification Period, and


(iii) during the auction and during the play but only at his turn to call or play.

(d) The Regulating Authority may restrict the use of psychic artificial calls.

    The Regulating Authority may disallow prior agreement by a partnership to vary its understandings during the auction or play following a question asked, a response to a question, or any irregularity.

  1. A side that is damaged as a consequence of its opponents’ failure to provide disclosure of the meaning of a call or play as these laws require, is entitled to rectification through the award of an adjusted score.

  2. When a side is damaged by an opponent’s use of a special partnership understanding that does not comply with the regulations governing the tournament the score shall be adjusted. A side in breach of those regulations may be subject to a procedural penalty.

  3. (a) When explaining the significance of partner’s call or play in reply to opponent’s enquiry (see Law 20) a player shall disclose all special information conveyed to him through partnership agreement or partnership experience but he need not disclose inferences drawn from his knowledge and experience of matters generally known to bridge players.

(b) The Director adjusts the scores if information not given in an explanation is crucial for opponent’s choice of action and opponent is thereby damaged.

 

C. Deviation from System and Psychic Action

  1. A player may deviate from his side’s announced understandings always provided that his partner has no more reason to be aware of the deviation than have the opponents. Repeated deviations lead to implicit understandings which then form part of the partnership’s methods and must be disclosed in accordance with the regulations governing disclosure of system. If the Director judges there is undisclosed knowledge that has damaged the opponents he shall adjust the score and
    may award a procedural penalty.

  2. Other than the above no player has any obligation to disclose to opponents that he has deviated from his announced methods.

  3. (a) Unless permitted by the Regulating Authority a player is not entitled during the auction and play periods to any aids to his memory, calculation or technique.
    (b) Repeated violations of requirements to disclose partnership understandings may be penalized.

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    LAW 41 - COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY

    A. Face-down Opening Lead

    After a bid, double or redouble has been followed by three passes in rotation, the defender on presumed declarer’s left makes the opening lead face down*. The face-down lead may be withdrawn only upon instruction of the Director after an irregularity (see Law 47E2); the withdrawn card must be returned to the defender’s hand.

    B. Review of Auction and Questions

    Before the opening lead is faced, the leader’s partner and the presumed declarer (but not the presumed dummy) each may require a review of the auction, or request explanation of an opponent’s call (see Law 20F2 and 20F3). Declarer** or either defender may, at his first turn to play a card, require a review of the auction; this right expires when he plays a card. The defenders (subject to Law 16) and the declarer retain the right to request explanations throughout the play period, each at his own*** turn to play.

    C. Opening Lead Faced

    Following this Clarification Period, the opening lead is faced, the play period begins irrevocably, and dummy’s hand is spread (but see Law 54A for a faced opening lead out of turn). After it is too late to have previous calls restated (see B), declarer or either defender, at his own*** turn to play, is entitled to be informed as to what the contract is and whether, but not by whom, it was doubled or redoubled.

    D. Dummy’s Hand

    After the opening lead is faced, dummy spreads his hand in front of him on the table, face up, sorted into suits, the cards in order of rank with lowest ranking cards towards declarer, and in columns pointing lengthwise towards declarer. Trumps are placed to dummy’s right. Declarer plays both his hand and that of dummy.

    * Regulating Authorities may specify that opening leads be made face up.

    ** Declarer’s first turn to play is from dummy unless accepting an opening lead out of turn.

    ***Declarer may enquire at his turn to play from dummy or from his own hand.

    LAW 42 - DUMMY’S RIGHTS

    A. Absolute Rights

    1. Dummy is entitled to give information, in the Director’s presence, as to fact or law.

    2. He may keep count of tricks won and lost.

    3. He plays the cards of the dummy as declarer’s agent as directed (see Law 45F if dummy suggests a play).

    B. Qualified Rights
     
    Dummy may exercise other rights subject to the limitations stated in Law 43.

    1. Dummy may ask declarer (but not a defender) when he has failed to follow suit to a trick whether he has a card of the suit led.

    2. He may try to prevent any irregularity by declarer.
       

    3. He may draw attention to any irregularity, but only after play of the hand is concluded.

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    LAW 43 - DUMMY’S LIMITATIONS


    Except as Law 42 allows:

    A. Limitations on Dummy

    1. (a) Unless attention has been drawn to an irregularity by another player, dummy should not initiate a call for the Director during play.
    (b) Dummy may not call attention to an irregularity during play.
    (c) Dummy must not participate in the play, nor may he communicate anything about the play to declarer.

    2. (a) Dummy may not exchange hands with declarer.

    (b) Dummy may not leave his seat to watch declarer’s play of the hand.
    (c)
    Dummy may not, on his own initiative, look at the face of a card in either defender’s hand.

     

    B. If Violation Occurs

    1. Dummy is liable to penalty under Law 90 for any violation of the limitations listed in A1 and A2.
       

    2. If dummy, after his violation of the limitations listed in A2:

     

    (a) warns declarer not to lead from the wrong hand, either defender may choose the hand from which declarer shall lead.

    (b) is the first to ask declarer if a play from declarer’s hand constitutes a revoke, declarer must substitute a correct card if his play was illegal, and the provisions of Law 64 then apply as if the revoke had been established.

    3. If dummy after violation of the limitations listed in A2 is the first to draw attention to a defender’s irregularity, there is no rectification. Play continues as though no irregularity had occurred. At the end of play see Law 12B1.

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    LAW 44 - SEQUENCE AND PROCEDURE OF PLAY

    A. Lead to a Trick

    The player who leads to a trick may play any card in his hand (unless he is subject to restriction after an irregularity committed by his side).

    B. Subsequent Plays to a Trick

    After the lead, each other player in turn plays a card, and the four cards so played constitute a trick. (For the method of playing cards and arranging tricks see Laws 45 and 65 respectively.)

    C. Requirement to Follow Suit

    In playing to a trick, each player must follow suit if possible. This obligation takes precedence over all other requirements of these Laws.

    D. Inability to Follow Suit

    If unable to follow suit, a player may play any card (unless he is subject to restriction after an irregularity committed by his side).

    E. Tricks Containing Trumps

    A trick containing a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the highest trump.

    F. Tricks Not Containing Trumps

    A trick that does not contain a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the highest card of the suit led.

    G. Lead to Tricks Subsequent to First Trick

    The lead to the next trick is from the hand in which the last trick was won.

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    LAW 45 - CARD PLAYED

    A. Play of Card from a Hand

    Each player except dummy plays a card by detaching it from his hand and facing* it on the table immediately before him.

    B. Play of Card from Dummy

    Declarer plays a card from dummy by naming the card, after which dummy picks up the card and faces it on the table. In playing from dummy’s hand declarer may, if necessary, pick up the desired card himself.

    C. Compulsory Play of Card

    1. A defender’s card held so that it is possible for his partner to see its face must be played to the current trick (if the defender has already made a legal play to the current trick, see Law 45E).

    2. Declarer must play a card from his hand if it is

    (a) held face up, touching or nearly touching the table; or
    (b) maintained in such a position as to indicate that it has been played.

    3. A card in the dummy must be played if it has been deliberately touched by declarer except for the purpose either of arranging dummy’s cards, or of reaching a card above or below the card or cards touched.

    4.(a) A card must be played if a player names or otherwise designates it as the card he proposes to play.
    b) Until his partner has played a card a player may change an unintended designation if he does so without pause for thought. If an opponent has, in turn, played a card that was legal before the change in designation, that opponent may withdraw the card so played, return it to his hand, and substitute another (see Laws 47D and 16D1).

    5. A penalty card, major or minor, may have to be played (see Law 50).

    D. Card Misplayed by Dummy

    If dummy places in the played position a card that declarer did not name, the card must be withdrawn if attention is drawn to it before each side has played to the next trick, and a defender may withdraw and return to his hand a card played after the error but before attention was drawn to it; if declarer’s RHO changes his play, declarer may withdraw a card he had subsequently played to that trick. (See Law 16D.)

    E. Fifth Card Played to Trick

    1. A fifth card contributed to a trick by a defender becomes a penalty card, subject to Law 50, unless the Director deems that it was led, in which case Law 53 or 56 applies.

    2. When declarer contributes a fifth card to a trick from his own hand or dummy, it is returned to the hand without further rectification unless the Director deems that it was led, in which case Law 55 applies.

    F. Dummy Indicates Card

    After dummy’s hand is faced, dummy may not touch or indicate any card (except for purpose of arrangement) without instruction from declarer. If he does so the Director should be summoned forthwith and informed of the action. Play continues. At the end of the play the Director shall award an adjusted score if he considers dummy suggested a play to declarer and the defenders were damaged by the play suggested.

    G. Turning the Trick

    No player should turn his card face down until all four players have played to the trick.

    * The opening lead is first made face down unless the Regulating Authority directs otherwise.

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    LAW 46 – INCOMPLETE OR ERRONEOUS CALL OF A CARD FROM DUMMY

    A. Proper Form for Designating Dummy’s Card

    When calling a card to be played from dummy declarer should clearly state both the suit and the rank of the desired card.

    B. Incomplete or Erroneous Call

    In case of an incomplete or erroneous call by declarer of the card to be played from dummy, the following restrictions apply (except when declarer’s different intention is incontrovertible):

    1. (a) If declarer in playing from dummy calls ‘high’, or words of like meaning, he is deemed to have called the highest card.
    b) If he directs dummy to ‘win’ the trick he is deemed to have called the lowest card that it is known will win the trick.
     (c) If he calls ‘low’, or words of like meaning, he is deemed to have called the lowest card.

    2. If declarer designates a suit but not a rank he is deemed to have called the lowest card of the suit indicated.

    3. If declarer designates a rank but not a suit
     a) In leading, declarer is deemed to have continued the suit in which dummy won the preceding trick provided there is a card of the designated rank in that suit.

    b) In all other cases declarer must play a card from dummy of the designated rank if he can legally do so; but if there are two or more such cards that can be legally played declarer must designate which is intended.
    (i) If declarer calls a card that is not in dummy the call is void and declarer may designate any legal card.
     (ii) If declarer indicates a play without designating either a suit or a rank (as by saying ‘play anything’ or words of like meaning) either defender may designate the play from dummy.

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LAW 47 - RETRACTION OF CARD PLAYED

A. In Course of Rectification

A card once played may be withdrawn when required by rectification following an irregularity (but a defender’s withdrawn card may become a penalty card, see Law 49).

B. To Correct an Illegal Play

A played card may be withdrawn to correct an illegal play (for defenders, except as this Law provides, see Law 49 - penalty card). For simultaneous play see Law 58.

C. To Change an Inadvertent Designation

A played card may be withdrawn and returned to the hand without further rectification after a change of designation permitted by Law 45C4(b).

D. Following Opponent’s Change of Play

After an opponent’s change of play a played card may be withdrawn and returned to the hand without further rectification and another card may be substituted. (Laws 16D and 62C2 may apply.)

E. Change of Play Based on Misinformation

  1. A lead out of turn (or play of a card) may be retracted without further rectification if the player was mistakenly informed by an opponent that it was his turn to lead or play. A lead or play may not be accepted by his LHO in these circumstances.
     

  2. (a) A player may retract the card he has played because of a mistaken explanation of an opponent’s call or play and before a corrected explanation, without further rectification, but only if no card was subsequently played to that trick. An opening lead may not be retracted after dummy has faced any card.

 

(b) When it is too late to correct a play under (a) the Director may award an adjusted score.

 

F. Other Retraction

  1. A card may be withdrawn as Law 53C provides.

  2. Except as this Law specifies, a card once played may not be withdrawn.

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LAW 48 - EXPOSURE OF DECLARER’S CARDS

A. Declarer Exposes a Card

Declarer is not subject to restriction for exposing a card (but see Law 45C2), and no card of declarer’s or dummy’s hand ever becomes a penalty card. Declarer is not required to play any card dropped accidentally.

B. Declarer Faces Cards

  1. When declarer faces his cards after an opening lead out of turn, Law 54 applies.

  2. When declarer faces his cards at any time other than immediately after an opening lead out of turn, he may be deemed to have made a claim or concession of tricks (unless he demonstrably did not intend to claim), and Law 68 then applies.

LAW 49 - EXPOSURE OF A DEFENDER’S CARDS

Except in the normal course of play or application of law (see for example Law 47E), when a defender’s card is in a position in which his partner could possibly see its face, or when a defender names a card as being in his hand, each such card becomes a penalty card (Law 50); but see the footnote to Law 68 when a defender has made a statement concerning an uncompleted trick currently in progress, and see Law 68B2 when partner objects to a defender’s concession.

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LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD

A card prematurely exposed (but not led, see Law 57) by a defender is a penalty card unless the Director designates otherwise (see Law 49 and Law 23 may apply).

A. Penalty Card Remains Exposed

A penalty card must be left face up on the table immediately before the player to whom it belongs, until a rectification has been selected.

B. Major or Minor Penalty Card?

A single card below the rank of an honour exposed unintentionally (as in playing two cards to a trick, or in dropping a card accidentally)  becomes a minor penalty card. Any card of honour rank, or any card exposed through deliberate play (for example in leading out of turn, or in revoking and then correcting), becomes a major penalty card; when one defender has two or more penalty cards, all such cards become major penalty cards.

C. Disposition of Minor Penalty Card

When a defender has a minor penalty card, he may not play any other card of the same suit below the rank of an honour until he has first played the penalty card, but he is entitled to play an honour card instead. Offender’s partner is not subject to lead restriction, but information gained through seeing the penalty card is unauthorized (see E following).

D. Disposition of Major Penalty Card

When a defender has a major penalty card, both the offender and his partner may be subject to restriction, the offender whenever he is to play, the partner whenever he is to lead.

1. (a) A major penalty card must be played at the first legal opportunity, whether in leading, following suit, discarding or trumping. If a defender has two or more penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates which is to be played.

(b) The obligation to follow suit, or to comply with a lead or play restriction, takes precedence over the obligation to play a major penalty card, but the penalty card must still be left face up on the
table and played at the next legal opportunity.

2. When a defender has the lead while his partner has a major penalty card, he may not lead until declarer has stated which of the options below is selected (if the defender leads prematurely, he is subject to rectification under Law 49). Declarer may choose

a) to prohibit* him from leading that suit for as long as he retains the lead (for two or more penalty cards, see Law 51); if declarer exercises either of these options, the card is no longer a penalty card and is picked up.

(b) not to require or prohibit a lead, in which case the defender may lead any card; the penalty card remains a penalty card**. If this option is selected Law 50D continues to apply for as long as the penalty card remains.

 

E. Information from a Penalty Card

  1. Knowledge of the requirements for playing a penalty card is authorized information for all players.

  2. Other information derived from sight of a penalty card is unauthorized for the partner of the player who has the penalty card (but authorized for declarer).

  3. If the Director judges that the exposed card conveyed such information as to damage the non-offending side he shall award an adjusted score.

* If the player is unable to lead as required see Law 59.

**If the partner of the defender with the penalty card retains the lead, and the penalty card has not yet been played, then all the requirements and options of Law 50D2 apply again at the following trick.

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LAW 51 - TWO OR MORE PENALTY CARDS

A. Offender to Play

If it is a defender’s turn to play and that defender has two or more penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates which is to be played at that turn.

B. Offender’s Partner to Lead

1. (a) When a defender has two or more penalty cards in one suit, and declarer requires* the defender’s partner to lead that suit, the cards of that suit are no longer penalty cards and are picked up; the
defender may make any legal play to the trick.

(b) When a defender has two or more penalty cards in one suit, and declarer prohibits* the defender’s partner from leading that suit, the defender picks up every penalty card in that suit and may make any legal play to the trick. The prohibition continues until the player loses the lead.

2. (a) When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit (see Law 50D2(a)) and his partner is to lead, declarer may require* the defender’s partner to lead any suit in which the defender has a
penalty card (but B1(a) preceding then applies).

(b) When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit and his  partner is to lead, declarer may prohibit* the defender’s partner from leading one or more of such suits; the defender then picks up every penalty card in every suit prohibited by declarer and makes any legal play to the trick. The prohibition continues until the player loses the lead.

* If the player is unable to lead as required see Law 59.

LAW 52 - FAILURE TO LEAD OR PLAY A PENALTY CARD

A. Defender Fails to Play Penalty Card

When a defender fails to lead or play a penalty card as required by Law 50 or Law 51, he may not, on his own initiative, withdraw any other card he has played.

B. Defender Plays Another Card

1. (a) If a defender has led or played another card when required by law to play a penalty card, declarer may accept such lead or play.

(b) Declarer must accept such lead or play if he has thereafter played from his own hand or dummy.

 

(c) If the played card is accepted under either (a) or (b) any unplayed penalty card remains a penalty card.

2. If declarer does not accept the card illegally played or led the defender must substitute the penalty card for the card illegally played or led. Every card illegally led or played by the defender in the
course of committing the irregularity becomes a major penalty card.

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LAW 53 - LEAD OUT OF TURN ACCEPTED

A. Lead Out of Turn Treated as Correct Lead

Any lead faced out of turn may be treated as a correct lead (but see Law 47E1). It becomes a correct lead if declarer or either defender, as the case may be, accepts it by making a statement to that effect, or if a play is made from the hand next in rotation to the irregular lead (but see C). If there is no such acceptance or play, the Director will require that the lead be made from the correct hand (and see Law 47B).

B. Wrong Defender Plays Card to Declarer’s Irregular Lead

If the defender at the right of the hand from which declarer’s lead out of turn was made plays to the irregular lead (but see C), the lead stands and Law 57 applies.

C. Proper Lead Made Subsequent to Irregular Lead

Subject to Law 53A, if it was properly the turn to lead of an opponent of the player who led out of turn, that opponent may make his proper lead to the trick of the infraction without his card being deemed played to the irregular lead. When this occurs, the proper lead stands and all cards played in error to this trick may be withdrawn. Law 16D applies but there is no further rectification.

LAW 54 - FACED OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN

When an opening lead out of turn is faced and offender’s partner leads face down, the director requires the face down lead to be retracted. Also:

A. Declarer Spreads His Hand

After a faced opening lead out of turn, declarer may spread his hand; he becomes dummy. If declarer begins to spread his hand, and in doing so exposes one or more cards, he must spread his entire hand. Dummy becomes declarer.

B. Declarer Accepts Lead

When a defender faces the opening lead out of turn declarer may accept the irregular lead as provided in Law 53, and dummy is spread in accordance with Law 41.

  1. The second card to the trick is played from declarer’s hand.

  2. If declarer plays the second card to the trick from dummy, dummy’s card may not be withdrawn except to correct a revoke.

C. Declarer Must Accept Lead

If declarer could have seen any of dummy’s cards (except cards that dummy may have exposed during the auction and that were subject to Law 24), he must accept the lead.

D. Declarer Refuses Opening Lead

Declarer may require a defender to retract his faced opening lead out of turn. The withdrawn card becomes a major penalty card and Law 50D applies.

E. Opening Lead by Wrong Side

If a player of the declaring side attempts to make an opening lead Law 24 applies.

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LAW 55 - DECLARER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN

A. Declarer’s Lead Accepted

If declarer has led out of turn from his or dummy’s hand, either defender may accept the lead as provided in Law 53, or require its retraction (after misinformation, see Law 47E1). If the defenders choose
differently the option expressed by the player next in turn shall prevail.

B. Declarer Required to Retract Lead

  1. If declarer has led from his or dummy’s hand when it was a defender’s turn to lead, and if either defender requires him to retract such lead, declarer restores the card led in error to the proper hand. No further rectification applies.

  2. If declarer has led from the wrong hand when it was his turn to lead from his hand or dummy’s, and if either defender requires him to retract the lead, he withdraws the card led in error. He must lead from the correct hand.

C. Declarer Might Obtain Information

When declarer adopts a line of play that could have been based on information obtained through the infraction, the Director may award an adjusted score.

LAW 56 - DEFENDER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN

See Law 54D.

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LAW 57 - PREMATURE LEAD OR PLAY

A. Premature Play or Lead to Next Trick

When a defender leads to the next trick before his partner has played to the current trick, or plays out of turn before his partner has played, the card so led or played becomes a major penalty card, and declarer selects one of the following options. He may:

  1. require offender’s partner to play the highest card he holds of the suit led, or

  2. require offender’s partner to play the lowest card he holds of the suit led, or

  3. forbid offender’s partner to play a card of another suit specified by declarer.

B. Offender’s Partner Cannot Comply with Rectification

When offender’s partner is unable to comply with the rectification selected by declarer he may play any card, as provided in Law 59.

C. Declarer or Dummy Has Played

  1. A defender is not subject to rectification for playing before his partner if declarer has played from both hands, nor if dummy has played a card or has illegally suggested that it be played. A singleton in dummy, or one of cards adjacent in rank of the same suit, is not considered to be played until declarer has instructed (or indicated*) the play.

  2. A premature play (not a lead) by declarer from either hand is a played card and may not be withdrawn.

* as by a gesture or nod

LAW 58 - SIMULTANEOUS LEADS OR PLAYS

A. Simultaneous Plays by Two Players

A lead or play made simultaneously with another player’s legal lead or play is deemed to be subsequent to it.

B. Simultaneous Cards from One Hand

If a player leads or plays two or more cards simultaneously:

  1. If only one card is visible, that card is played; all other cards are picked up and there is no further rectification (see Law 47F).

  2. If more than one card is visible, the player designates the card he proposes to play; when he is a defender, each other card exposed becomes a penalty card (see Law 50).

  3. After a player withdraws a visible card, an opponent who subsequently played to that card may withdraw his play and substitute another without further rectification (but see Law 16D).

  4. If the simultaneous play remains undiscovered until both sides have played to the next trick, Law 67 applies.

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LAW 59 - INABILITY TO LEAD OR PLAY AS REQUIRED

A player may play any otherwise legal card if he is unable to lead or play as required to comply with a rectification, whether because he holds no card of the required suit, or because he has only cards of a suit he is prohibited from leading, or because he is obliged to follow suit.

LAW 60 - PLAY AFTER AN ILLEGAL PLAY

A. Play of Card after Irregularity

  1. A play by a member of the non-offending side after his RHO has led or played out of turn or prematurely, and before rectification has been assessed, forfeits the right to rectification of that offence.

  2. Once the right to rectification has been forfeited, the illegal play is treated as though it were in turn (except when Law 53C applies).

  3. If the offending side has a previous obligation to play a penalty card, or to comply with a lead or play restriction, the obligation remains at future turns.

B. Defender Plays before Required Lead by Declarer

When a defender plays a card after declarer has been required to retract his lead out of turn from either hand, but before declarer has led from the correct hand, the defender’s card becomes a major penalty card (Law 50).

C. Play by Offending Side before Assessment of Rectification

A play by a member of the offending side before rectification has been assessed does not affect the rights of the opponents, and may itself be subject to rectification.

LAW 61 - FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUIT - INQUIRIES CONCERNING A REVOKE

A. Definition of Revoke

Failure to follow suit in accordance with Law 44 or failure to lead or play, when able, a card or suit required by law or specified by an opponent when exercising an option in rectification of an irregularity, constitutes a revoke. (When unable to comply see Law 59.)

B. Right to Inquire about a Possible Revoke

  1. Declarer may ask a defender who has failed to follow suit whether he has a card of the suit led.

  2. (a) Dummy may ask declarer (but see Law 43B2(b)).
    (b) Dummy may not ask a defender and Law 16B may apply.

    3. Defenders may ask declarer and, unless prohibited by the Regulating Authority, may ask one another (at the risk of creating unauthorized information).

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LAW 62 - CORRECTION OF A REVOKE

A. Revoke Must Be Corrected

A player must correct his revoke if he becomes aware of the irregularity before it becomes established.

B. Correcting a Revoke

To correct a revoke the offender withdraws the card he played and substitutes a legal card.

  1. A card so withdrawn becomes a major penalty card (Law 50) if it was played from a defender’s unfaced hand.

  2. The card may be replaced without further rectification if it was played from declarer’s (subject to Law 43B2(b)) or dummy’s hand, or if it was a defender’s faced card.

C. Subsequent Cards Played

  1. Each member of the non-offending side may withdraw and return to his hand any card he may have played after the revoke but before attention was drawn to it (see Law 16D).

  2. After a non-offender so withdraws a card, the player of the offending side next in rotation may withdraw his played card, which becomes a penalty card if the player is a defender, and see Law 16D.
     

  3. A claim of a revoke does not automatically warrant inspection of quitted tricks (see Law 66C).

D. Revoke on Trick Twelve

  1. On the twelfth trick, a revoke, even if established, must be corrected if discovered before all four hands have been returned to the board.
     

  2. If a revoke by a defender occurs on the twelfth trick and before it was the turn of his partner to play to the trick, when offender’s partner has cards of two suits he may not choose the play that could possibly have been suggested by seeing the revoke card.

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LAW 63 - ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE

A. Revoke Becomes Established

A revoke becomes established:

  1. when the offender or his partner leads or plays to the following trick (any such play, legal or illegal, establishes the revoke).
     

  2. when the offender or his partner names or otherwise designates a card to be played to the following trick.
     

  3. when a member of the offending side makes or agrees to a claim or concession of tricks orally or by facing his hand or in any other way.

B. Revoke May Not Be Corrected

Once a revoke is established, it may no longer be corrected (except as provided in Law 62D for a revoke on the twelfth trick), and the trick on which the revoke occurred stands as played.

LAW 64 - PROCEDURE AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE

A. Rectification following a Revoke

When a revoke is established:

  1. and the trick on which the revoke occurred was won by the offending player*, at the end of the play the trick on which the revoke occurred is transferred to the non-offending side together with one of any subsequent tricks won by the offending side.
     

  2. and the trick on which the revoke occurred was not won by the offending player* then, if the offending side won that or any subsequent trick, after play ends one trick is transferred to the non-offending side.

B. No Rectification

There is no rectification as in A following an established revoke:

  1. if the offending side did not win either the revoke trick or any subsequent trick.
     

  2. if it is a subsequent revoke in the same suit by the same player. Law 64C may apply.
     

  3. if the revoke was made in failing to play any card faced on the table or belonging to a hand faced on the table, including a card from dummy’s hand.

  4. if attention was first drawn to the revoke after a member of the non-offending side has made a call on the subsequent deal.

  5. if attention was first drawn to the revoke after the round has ended.

  6. if it is a revoke on the twelfth trick.

  7. when both sides have revoked on the same board.

C. Director Responsible for Equity

When, after any established revoke, including those not subject to rectification, the Director deems that the non-offending side is insufficiently compensated by this Law for the damage caused, he shall
assign an adjusted score.

* a trick won in dummy is not won by declarer for the purposes of this Law.

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LAW 65 - ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS

A. Completed Trick

When four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns his own card face down near him on the table.

B. Keeping Track of the Ownership of Tricks

  1. If the player’s side has won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward his partner.
     

  2. If the opponents have won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward the opponents.
     

  3. Declarer may require that a card pointed incorrectly is pointed as above. Dummy or either defender may draw attention to a card pointed incorrectly, but for these players the right expires when a lead is made to the following trick. If done later Law 16B may apply.

C. Orderliness

Each player arranges his own cards in an orderly overlapping row in the sequence played, so as to permit review of the play after its completion, if necessary to determine the number of tricks won by each side or the order in which the cards were played.

D. Agreement on Results of Play

A player should not disturb the order of his played cards until agreement has been reached on the number of tricks won. A player who fails to comply with the provisions of this Law jeopardises his right to claim ownership of doubtful tricks or to claim (or deny) a revoke.

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LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS

A. Current Trick

So long as his side has not led or played to the next trick, declarer or either defender may, until he has turned his own card face down on the table, require that all cards just played to the trick be faced.

B. Own Last Card

Until a card is led to the next trick, declarer or either defender may inspect, but not expose, his own last card played.

C. Quitted Tricks

Thereafter, until play ceases, the cards of quitted tricks may not be inspected (except at the Director’s specific instruction; for example, if necessary to verify a claim of a revoke).

D. After the Conclusion of Play

After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected tosettle a claim of a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost; but no player should handle cards other than his own. If, after such a claim has been made, a player mixes his cards in such a manner that the Director can no longer ascertain the facts, the Director shall rule in favour of the other side.

LAW 67 - DEFECTIVE TRICK

A. Before Both Sides Play to Next Trick

When a player has omitted to play to a trick, or has played too many cards to a trick, the error must be rectified if attention is drawn to the irregularity before a player on each side has played to the
following trick.

  1. To rectify omission to play to a trick, the offender supplies a card he can legally play.
     

  2. To rectify the play of too many cards to a trick, Law 45E (Fifth Card Played to a Trick) or Law 58B (Simultaneous Cards from One Hand) shall be applied.

B. After Both Sides Play to Next Trick

After both sides have played to the following trick, when attention is drawn to a defective trick or when the Director determines that there had been a defective trick (from the fact that one player has too few or too many cards in his hand, and a correspondingly incorrect number of played cards), the Director establishes which trick was defective. To rectify the number of cards, the Director should proceed as follows.

1. When the offender has failed to play a card to the defective trick,  the Director shall require him forthwith to expose a card face-up in front of him and then place it appropriately among his played cards
(this card does not affect ownership of the trick); if

a) the offender has a card of the suit led to the defective trick, he must choose such a card to place among his played cards. He is deemed to have revoked on the defective trick and is subject to the loss of one trick transferred in accordance with Law 64A2.

 

(b) the offender has no card of the suit led to the defective trick, he chooses any card to place among his played cards. He is deemed to have revoked on the defective trick and is subject to the loss of one trick transferred in accordance with Law 64A2.

2. (a) When the offender has played more than one card to the defective trick, the Director inspects the played cards and requires the offender to restore to his hand all extra cards*, leaving among the played cards the one faced in playing to the defective trick (if the Director is unable to determine which card was faced, the offender leaves the highest ranking of the cards that he could legally have played to the trick). Ownership of the defective trick does not change.

(b) A restored card is deemed to have belonged continuously to the offender’s hand, and a failure to have played it to an earlier trick may constitute a revoke.

* The Director should avoid, when possible, exposing a defender’s played cards, but if an extra card to be restored to a defender’s hand has been exposed, it becomes a penalty card (see Law 50).

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LAW 68 - CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS

For a statement or action to constitute a claim or concession of tricks under these Laws, it must refer to tricks other than one currently in progress*. If it does refer to subsequent tricks:

A. Claim Defined

Any statement to the effect that a contestant will win a specific number of tricks is a claim of those tricks. A contestant also claims when he suggests that play be curtailed, or when he shows his cards (unless he demonstrably did not intend to claim - for example, if declarer faces his cards after an opening lead out of turn Law 54, not this Law, will apply).

B. Concession Defined

  1. Any statement to the effect that a contestant will lose a specific number of tricks is a concession of those tricks; a claim of some number of tricks is a concession of the remainder, if any. A player concedes all the remaining tricks when he abandons his hand.

  2. Regardless of 1 preceding, if a defender attempts to concede one or more tricks and his partner immediately objects, no concession has occurred. Unauthorized information may exist, so the Director should be summoned immediately. Play continues. Any card that has been exposed by a defender in these circumstances is not a penalty card but Law 16D applies to information arising from its exposure and the information may not be used by the partner of the defender who has exposed it.

C. Clarification Required for Claim

A claim should be accompanied at once by a clear statement as to the order in which cards will be played, of the line of play or defence through which the claimer proposes to win the tricks claimed.

D. Play Ceases

After any claim or concession, play ceases (but see Law 70D3). If the claim or concession is agreed, Law 69 applies; if it is doubted by any player (dummy included), the Director must be summoned immediately and Law 70 applies. No action may be taken pending the Director’s arrival. * If the statement or action pertains only to the winning or losing of an uncompleted trick currently in progress, play proceeds regularly; cards exposed or revealed by a defender do not become penalty cards, but Law 16, Unauthorized Information, may apply, and see Law 57A, Premature Play.

LAW 69 - AGREED CLAIM OR CONCESSION

A. When Agreement is Established

Agreement is established when a contestant assents to an opponent’s claim or concession, and raises no objection to it before his side makes a call on a subsequent board or before the round ends, whichever occurs first. The board is scored as though the tricks claimed or conceded had been won or lost in play.

B. Director’s Decision

Agreement with a claim or concession (see A) may be withdrawn within the Correction Period established under Law 79C:

  1. if a player agreed to the loss of a trick his side had, in fact, won; or

  2. if a player has agreed to the loss of a trick that his side would likely have won had the play continued.

The board is rescored with such trick awarded to his side.

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LAW 70 - CONTESTED CLAIM OR CONCESSION

A. General Objective

In ruling on a contested claim or concession, the Director adjudicates the result of the board as equitably as possible to both sides, but anydoubtful point as to a claim shall be resolved against the claimer. The Director proceeds as follows.

B. Clarification Statement Repeated

  1. The Director requires claimer to repeat the clarification statement he made at the time of his claim.
     

  2. Next, the Director hears the opponents’ objections to the claim (but the Director’s considerations are not limited only to the opponents’ objections).

  3. The Director may require players to put their remaining cards face up on the table.

C. There Is an Outstanding Trump

When a trump remains in one of the opponents’ hands, the Director shall award a trick or tricks to the opponents if:

  1. claimer made no statement about that trump, and

  2. it is at all likely that claimer at the time of his claim was unaware that a trump remained in an opponent’s hand, and

  3. a trick could be lost to that trump by any normal* play.

D. Director’s Considerations

  1. The Director shall not accept from claimer any successful line of play not embraced in the original clarification statement if there is an
    alternative normal* line of play that would be less successful.

  2. The Director does not accept any part of a defender’s claim that depends on his partner’s selecting a particular play from among alternative normal* plays.

  3. In accordance with Law 68D play should have ceased, but if any play has occurred after the claim this may provide evidence to be deemed part of the clarification of the claim. The Director may accept it as evidence of the players’ probable plays subsequent to the claim and/or of the accuracy of the claim.

E. Unstated Line of Play

  1. The Director shall not accept from claimer any unstated line of play the success of which depends upon finding one opponent rather than the other with a particular card, unless an opponent failed to follow to the suit of that card before the claim was made, or would subsequently fail to follow to that suit on any normal* line of play, or unless failure to adopt that line of play would be irrational.
     

  2. The Regulating Authority may specify an order (e.g. “from the top down”) in which the Director shall deem a suit played if this was not clarified in the statement of claim (but always subject to any other requirement of this Law).

* For the purposes of Laws 70 and 71, “normal” includes play that would be careless or inferior for the class of player involved.

LAW 71 - CONCESSION CANCELLED

A concession must stand, once made, except that within the Correction Period established under Law 79C the Director shall cancel a concession:

  1. if a player conceded a trick his side had, in fact, won; or

  2. if a player has conceded a trick that could not be lost by any normal* play of the remaining cards.

The board is rescored with such trick awarded to his side.

* For the purposes of Laws 70 and 71, “normal” includes play that would be careless or inferior for the class of player involved.

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LAW 72 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES

A. Observance of Laws

Duplicate bridge tournaments should be played in strict accordance with the Laws. The chief object is to obtain a higher score than other contestants whilst complying with the lawful procedures and ethical standards set out in these laws.

B. Infraction of Law

  1. A player must not infringe a law intentionally, even if there is a prescribed rectification he is willing to accept.

  2. There is no obligation to draw attention to an infraction of law committed by one’s own side (but see Law 20F for a mistaken explanation and see Laws 62A and 79A2).
     

  3. A player may not attempt to conceal an infraction, as by committing a second revoke, concealing a card involved in a revoke or mixing the cards prematurely.

LAW 73 - COMMUNICATION

A. Appropriate Communication between Partners

  1. Communication between partners during the auction and play shall be effected only by means of calls and plays.
     

  2. Calls and plays should be made without undue emphasis, mannerism or inflection, and without undue hesitation or haste.

But Regulating Authorities may require mandatory pauses, as on the first round of the auction, or after a skip-bid warning, or on the first trick.

B. Inappropriate Communication between Partners

  1. Partners shall not communicate by means such as the manner in which calls or plays are made, extraneous remarks or gestures, questions asked or not asked of the opponents or alerts and
    explanations given or not given to them
    .

  2. The gravest possible offence is for a partnership to exchange information through prearranged methods of communication other than those sanctioned by these Laws.

C. Player Receives Unauthorized Information from Partner

When a player has available to him unauthorized information from his partner, such as from a remark, question, explanation, gesture, mannerism, undue emphasis, inflection, haste or hesitation, an unexpected* alert or failure to alert, he must carefully avoid taking any advantage from that unauthorized information.

D. Variations in Tempo or Manner

  1. It is desirable, though not always required, for players to maintain steady tempo and unvarying manner. However, players should be particularly careful when variations may work to the benefit of their side. Otherwise, unintentionally to vary the tempo or manner in which a call or play is made is not in itself an infraction. Inferences from such variation may appropriately be drawn only by an opponent, and at his own risk.
     

  2. A player may not attempt to mislead an opponent by means of remark or gesture, by the haste or hesitancy of a call or play (as in hesitating before playing a singleton), the manner in which a call or play is made or by any purposeful deviation from correct procedure.

E. Deception

A player may appropriately attempt to deceive an opponent through a call or play (so long as the deception is not protected by concealed partnership understanding or experience).

F. Violation of Proprieties

When a violation of the Proprieties described in this law results in damage to an innocent opponent, if the Director determines that an innocent player has drawn a false inference from a remark, manner,
tempo, or the like, of an opponent who has no demonstrable bridge reason for the action, and who could have known, at the time of the action, that the action could work to his benefit, the Director shall award an adjusted score (see Law 12C).

* i.e. unexpected in relation to the basis of his action.

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LAW 74 - CONDUCT AND ETIQUETTE

A. Proper Attitude

  1. A player should maintain a courteous attitude at all times.

  2. A player should carefully avoid any remark or action that might cause annoyance or embarrassment to another player or might interfere with the enjoyment of the game.
     

  3. Every player should follow uniform and correct procedure in calling and playing.

B. Etiquette

As a matter of courtesy a player should refrain from:

  1. paying insufficient attention to the game.

  2. making gratuitous comments during the auction and play.
     

  3. detaching a card before it is his turn to play.
     

  4. prolonging play unnecessarily (as in playing on although he knows that all the tricks are surely his) for the purpose of disconcerting an opponent.

  5. summoning and addressing the Director in a manner discourteous to him or to other contestants.

C. Violations of Procedure

The following are examples of violations of procedure:

  1. using different designations for the same call.
     

  2. indicating approval or disapproval of a call or play.
     

  3. indicating the expectation or intention of winning or losing a trick that has not been completed.
     

  4. commenting or acting during the auction or play so as to call attention to a significant occurrence, or to the number of tricks still required for success.

  5. looking intently at any other player during the auction and play, or at another player’s hand as for the purpose of seeing his cards or of observing the place from which he draws a card
    (but it is appropriate to act on information acquired by unintentionally seeing an opponent’s card*).

  6. showing an obvious lack of further interest in a deal (as by folding one’s cards).

  7. varying the normal tempo of bidding or play for the purpose of disconcerting an opponent.

  8. leaving the table needlessly before the round is called.

* See Law 73D2 when a player may have shown his cards intentionally.

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LAW 75 - MISTAKEN EXPLANATION OR MISTAKEN CALL

After a misleading explanation has been given to opponents the responsibilities of the players (and the Director) are as illustrated by the consequences of this following example:

North has opened 1NT and South, who holds a weak hand with long diamonds, has bid 2♦, intending to sign off; North explains, however, in answer to West’s inquiry, that South’s bid is strong and artificial, asking for major suits.

A. Mistake Causing Unauthorized Information

Whether or not North’s explanation is a correct statement of partnership agreement, South, having heard North’s explanation, knows that his own 2♦ bid has been misinterpreted. This knowledge is “unauthorised information” (see Law 16A), so South must be careful to avoid taking any advantage from that unauthorized information (see Law 73C). (If he does, the Director shall award an adjusted score.) For instance, if North rebids two no trump, South has the unauthorised information that this bid merely denies a four-card holding in either major suit; but South’s responsibility is to act as though North had made a strong game try opposite a weak response, showing maximum values.

B. Mistaken Explanation

The actual partnership agreement is that 2♦ is a natural signoff; the mistake was in North’s explanation. This explanation is an infraction of Law, since East-West are entitled to an accurate description of the North-South agreement (when this infraction results in damage to East-West, the Director shall award an adjusted score). If North subsequently becomes aware of his mistake, he must immediately notify the Director. South must do nothing to correct the mistaken explanation while the auction continues; after the final pass, South, if he is to be declarer or dummy, should call the Director and must volunteer a correction of the explanation. If South becomes a defender, he calls the Director and corrects the explanation when play ends.

C. Mistaken Call

The partnership agreement is as explained — 2♦ is strong and artificial; the mistake was in South’s call. Here there is no infraction of Law, since East-West did receive an accurate description of the North-South agreement; they have no claim to an accurate description of the North-South hands. (Regardless of damage, the Director shall allow the result to stand; but the Director is to presume Mistaken Explanation, rather than Mistaken Call, in the absence of evidence to the contrary.) South must not correct North’s explanation (or notify the Director) immediately, and he has no responsibility to do so subsequently.

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LAW 76 - SPECTATORS

A. Control

  1. Spectators in the playing area* are subject to the control of the Director under the regulations for the tournament.

  2. Regulating Authorities and Tournament Organizers who grant facilities for electronic transmission of play as it occurs may establish by regulation the terms by which such transmissions are viewed and prescribe acceptable conduct for viewers. (A viewer must not communicate with a player in the course of a session in which the latter is playing.)

B. At the Table

  1. A spectator may not look at the hand of more than one player unless allowed by regulation.

  2. A spectator must not show any reaction to the bidding or play when a deal is in progress.

  3. During a round a spectator must refrain from mannerisms or remarks of any kind and must have no conversation with a player.

  4. A spectator must not disturb a player.
     

  5. A spectator at the table shall not draw attention to any aspect of  the game.

C. Participation

  1. A spectator may speak as to fact or law within the playing area* only when requested to do so by the Director.

  2. Regulating Authorities and Tournament Organizers may specify how to deal with irregularities caused by spectators.

D. Status

Any person in the playing area*, other than a player or a tournament official, has the status of a spectator unless the Director specifies differently.

* The playing area includes all parts of the accommodation where a player may be present during a session in which he is participating. It may be further defined by regulation.

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LAW 77 – DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING TABLE

TRICK SCORE
Bid and made by declarer's side
 

Contract NT (first) NT (rest)
Undbld 20 20 30 30 40 30
Dbld 40 40 60 60 80 60
Redbld 80 80 120 120 160 120

A trick score of 100 points or more, made on one board, is GAME.
A trick score of less than 100 points is a PART SCORE.

 PREMIUM SCORE FOR SLAMS
Bid and Made

Contract Not Vulnerable Vulnerable
Small Slam (12 tricks) 500 750
Grand Slam (13 tricks) 1000 1500

OVERTRICKS
(tricks made in excess of contract)

Contract Not Vulnerable Vulnerable
Undoubled Trick value Trick value
Doubled 100 200
Redoubled 200 400

PREMIUMS FOR GAME, PART SCORE, FULFILLING CONTRACT

Contract Not Vulnerable Vulnerable
Game 300 500
Part Score 50 50
Doubled 50 50
Redoubled 100 100

UNDER TRICK PENALTIES
Scored by declarer’s opponents if the contract is not fulfilled

UNDER TRICKS Not Vulnerable Vulnerable
First Under trick    
Undoubled 50 100
Doubled 100 200
Redoubled 200 400
Additional under tricks    
Undoubled 50 100
Doubled 200 300
Redoubled 400 600
Bonus for fourth & subsequent under tricks    
Undoubled 0 0
Doubled 100 0
Redoubled 200 0

If all four players pass (see Law 22) each side enters a zero score.

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LAW 78 - METHODS OF SCORING AND CONDITIONS OF CONTEST

A. Matchpoint Scoring

In matchpoint scoring each contestant is awarded, for scores made by different contestants who have played the same board and whose scores are compared with his, two scoring units (matchpoints or half matchpoints) for each score inferior to his, one scoring unit for each score equal to his, and zero scoring units for each score superior to his.

B. International Matchpoint Scoring

In international matchpoint scoring, on each board the total point difference between the two scores compared is converted into IMPs according to the following scale.

Difference in points IMPS Difference in points IMPS Difference in points IMPS
20 - 40 1  370–420  9 1500–1740 17
50–80 2  430–490 10  1750–1990 18
90–120 3 500–590 11 2000–2240 19
130–160 4  600–740 12 2250–2490 20
170–210 5 750–890 13 2500–2990 21
220–260 6 900–1090 14 3000–3490 22
270–310 7 1100–1290 15 3500–3990 23
320–360 8 1300–1490 16 4000 & upward  24

C. Total Point Scoring

In total point scoring, the net total point score of all boards played is the score for each contestant.

D. Conditions of Contest

If approved by the Regulating Authority other scoring methods (for example conversions to Victory Points) may be adopted. The Tournament Organizer should publish Conditions of Contest in advance of a tournament or contest. These should detail conditions of entry, methods of scoring, determination of winners, breaking of ties, and the like. The Conditions must not conflict with law or regulation and shall incorporate any information specified by the Regulating Authority. They should be available to contestants.

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LAW 79 - TRICKS WON

A. Agreement on Tricks Won

  1. The number of tricks won shall be agreed upon before all four hands have been returned to the board.

  2. A player must not knowingly accept either the score for a trick that his side did not win or the concession of a trick that his opponents could not lose.

B. Disagreement on Tricks Won

If a subsequent disagreement arises, the Director must be called, then:

  1. The Director determines whether there has been a claim or concession and, if so, applies Law 69.

  2. If 1 does not apply the Director rules what score is to be recorded. If the Director is not called before the round ends he rules in accordance with C below or Law 87, as applicable, but there shall be no obligation to increase a side’s score.

C. Error in Score

  1. An error in computing or tabulating the agreed-upon score, whether made by a player or scorer, may be corrected until the expiration of the period specified by the Tournament Organizer. Unless the Tournament Organizer specifies a later* time, this Correction Period expires 30 minutes after the official score has been made available for inspection.

  2. Regulations may provide for circumstances in which a scoring error may be corrected after expiry of the Correction Period if the Director and the Tournament Organizer are both satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the record is wrong.

* An earlier time may be specified when required by the special nature of a contest.

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LAW 80 - REGULATION AND ORGANIZATION

A. The Regulating Authority

1. The Regulating Authority under these laws is

(a) for its own world tournaments and events the World Bridge Federation.

 

(b) the respective Zonal Authority for tournaments and events held under its auspices.

 

(c) for any other tournament or event the National Bridge Organization in whose territory the tournament takes place.

  1. The Regulating Authority has the responsibilities and powers specified in these laws.

  2. The Regulating Authority may delegate its powers (retaining ultimate responsibility for their exercise) or it may assign them (in which case it has no further responsibility for their exercise).

B. Tournament Organizer

  1. The Regulating Authority may recognize an entity, designated the ‘Tournament Organizer’, which subject to the requirements of the Regulating Authority and these laws is responsible for arranging and preparing a tournament or event. The Tournament Organizer’s powers and duties may be delegated but the responsibility for their performance is retained. The Regulating Authority and the Tournament Organizer may be the same body.

  2. The Tournament Organizer’s powers and duties include:

(a) appointment of the Director. If there is no appointed Director the players should designate a person to perform his functions.

 

(b) to make advance arrangements for the tournament, including playing quarters, equipment and all other logistical requirements.

 

(c) to establish the date and time of each session.

 

(d) to establish the conditions of entry.

 

(e) to establish the conditions for bidding and play in accordance with these laws, together with any special conditions (as, for example, play with screens – provisions for rectification of actions not transmitted across the screen may be varied).

 

(f) to announce regulations supplementary to, but not in conflict with, these Laws.

 

(g) (i) to arrange* for the appointment of any assistants required for the Director.

(ii) to appoint other staff and prescribe their duties and responsibilities.
 
(h) to arrange* for entries to be accepted and listed.

 

(i) to establish suitable conditions of play and announce them to the contestants.

 

(j) to arrange* for scores to be collected, results tabulated, and an official record made of them.

 

(k) to make suitable arrangements for the conduct of appeals under Law 93.

(l) any other powers and duties conferred in these laws.

* It is normal in some jurisdictions for the Director to assume responsibility for some or all of the tasks that the Tournament Organizer is here required to arrange.

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LAW 81 - THE DIRECTOR

A. Official Status
 

The Director is the official representative of the Tournament Organizer.

B. Restrictions and Responsibilities

  1. The Director is responsible for the on-site technical management of  the tournament. He has powers to remedy any omissions of the Tournament Organizer.
     

  2. The Director applies, and is bound by, these Laws and supplementary regulations announced under authority given in these Laws.

C. Director’s Duties and Powers

The Director (not the players) has the responsibility for rectifying irregularities and redressing damage. The Director’s duties and powers normally include also the following:

  1. to maintain discipline and to ensure the orderly progress of the game
    .

  2. to administer and interpret these Laws and to advise the players of their rights and responsibilities thereunder.

  3. to rectify an error or irregularity of which he becomes aware in any manner, within the correction period established in accordance with Law 79C.

  4. to assess rectification when applicable and to exercise the powers given him in Laws 90 and 91.
     

  5. to waive rectification for cause, in his discretion, upon the request of the non-offending side.
     

  6. to adjust disputes.

  7. to refer any matter to an appropriate committee.

  8. to report results for the official record if the Tournament Organizer requires it and to deal with any other matters delegated to him by the Tournament Organizer.

D. Delegation of Duties

The Director may delegate any of his duties to assistants, but he is not thereby relieved of responsibility for their correct performance.

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LAW 82 - RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS OF PROCEDURE

A. Director’s Duty

It is the responsibility of the Director to rectify errors of procedure and to maintain the progress of the game in a manner that is not contrary to these Laws.

B. Rectification of Error

To rectify an error in procedure the Director may:

  1. award an adjusted score as permitted by these Laws.
     

  2. require, postpone, or cancel the play of a board.
     

  3. exercise any other power given to him in these Laws.

C. Director’s Error

If a ruling has been given that the Director subsequently determines to be incorrect, and if no rectification will allow the board to be scored normally, he shall award an adjusted score, treating both sides as non-offending for that purpose.

LAW 83 - NOTIFICATION OF THE RIGHT TO APPEAL

If the Director believes that a review of his decision on a point of fact or exercise of his discretionary power could well be in order, he shall advise a contestant of his right to appeal or may refer the matter
to an appropriate committee.

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LAW 84 - RULINGS ON AGREED FACTS

When the Director is called to rule on a point of law or regulation, and the facts are agreed, he rules as follows:

A. No Rectification

If no rectification is prescribed by law, and there is no occasion for him to exercise his discretionary powers, he directs the players to proceed with the auction or play.

B. Law Provides Rectification

If the case is clearly covered by a Law that prescribes the rectification for the irregularity, he determines that rectification and ensures that it is implemented.

C. Player’s Option

If a Law gives a player a choice of rectification the Director explains the options and sees that the choice is made and implemented.

D. Director’s Option

The Director rules any doubtful point in favour of the non-offending side. He seeks to restore equity. If in his judgement it is probable that a non-offending side has been damaged by an irregularity for which these laws provide no rectification he adjusts the score (see Law 12).

LAW 85 - RULINGS ON DISPUTED FACTS

When the Director is called upon to rule on a point of law or regulation in which the facts are not agreed upon, he proceeds as follows:

A. Director’s Assessment

  1. In determining the facts the Director shall base his view on the balance of probabilities, which is to say in accordance with the weight of the evidence he is able to collect.

  2. If the Director is then satisfied that he has ascertained the facts, he rules as in Law 84.

B. Facts Not Determined

If the Director is unable to determine the facts to his satisfaction, he makes a ruling that will permit play to continue.

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LAW 86 - IN TEAM PLAY OR SIMILAR

A. Average Score at IMP Play

When the Director chooses to award an artificial adjusted score of average plus or average minus in IMP play, that score is plus 3 IMPs or minus 3 IMPs respectively. Subject to approval by the Regulating Authority, this may be varied by the Tournament Organizer.

B. Non-balancing Adjustments, Knockout Play

When the Director awards non-balancing adjusted scores (see Law 12C) in knockout play, each contestant’s score on the board is calculated separately. The average of the two scores is then assigned to each contestant.

C. Substitute Board

The Director shall not exercise his Law 6 authority to order one board redealt when the final result of a match without that board could be known to a contestant. Instead, he awards an adjusted score.

D. Result Obtained at Other Table

In team play when the Director awards an adjusted score (excluding any award that ensues from application of Law 6D2), and a result has been obtained* between the same contestants at another table, the Director may assign an adjusted score in IMPs or total points (and should do so when that result appears favourable to the non-offending side).

* if commenced between the same two contestants at another table the board may be completed

LAW 87 - FOULED BOARD

A. Definition

A board is considered to be ‘fouled’ if the Director determines that a card (or more than one) was displaced in the board, or if he determines that the dealer or vulnerability differed between copies of the same board, and the contestants who should have had a score comparison did not play the board in identical form for such reason.

B. Scoring

In scoring a fouled board the Director determines as closely as possible which scores were obtained on the board in its correct form and which in the changed form(s). He divides the scores on that basis into groups and rates each group separately as provided in the regulations for the tournament. (In the absence of a relevant regulation the Director selects and announces his method.)

LAW 88 - AWARD OF INDEMNITY POINTS

See Law 12C2.

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LAW 89 - RECTIFICATION IN INDIVIDUAL EVENTS

See Law 12C3.


LAW 90 - PROCEDURAL PENALTIES

A. Director’s Authority

The Director, in addition to implementing the rectifications in these Laws, may also assess procedural penalties for any offence that unduly delays or obstructs the game, inconveniences other contestants, violates correct procedure, or requires the award of an adjusted score at another table.

B. Offences Subject to Procedural Penalty

The following are examples of offences subject to procedural penalty (but the offences are not limited to these):

  1. arrival of a contestant after the specified starting time.
     

  2. unduly slow play by a contestant.
     

  3. discussion of the bidding, play or result of a board, which may be overheard at another table.

  4. unauthorized comparison of scores with another contestant.
     

  5. touching or handling of cards belonging to another player (see Law 7).

  6. placing one or more cards in an incorrect pocket of the board.

  7. errors in procedure (such as failure to count cards in one’s hand, playing the wrong board, etc.) that require an adjusted score for any contestant.

  8. failure to comply promptly with tournament regulations or with instructions of the Director.

LAW 91 - PENALIZE OR SUSPEND

A. Director’s Powers

In performing his duty to maintain order and discipline, the Director is empowered to assess disciplinary penalties in points or to suspend a contestant for the current session or any part thereof. The Director’s decision under this clause is final and may not be overruled by an appeals committee (see Law 93B3).

B. Right to Disqualify

The Director is empowered to disqualify a contestant for cause, subject to approval by the Tournament Organizer.

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LAW 92 - RIGHT TO APPEAL

A. Contestant’s Right

A contestant or his captain may appeal for a review of any ruling made at his table by the Director. Any such appeal, if deemed to lack merit, may be the subject of a sanction imposed by regulation.

B. Time of Appeal

The right to request or appeal a Director’s ruling expires 30 minutes after the official score has been made available for inspection unless the Tournament Organizer has specified a different time period.

C. How to Appeal

All appeals shall be made through the Director.

D. Concurrence of Appellants

An appeal shall not be heard unless

  1. in a pairs event both members of the partnership concur in making the appeal (but in an individual contest an appellant does not require his partner’s concurrence).

  2. in a team event the team captain concurs in making the appeal.

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    LAW 93 - PROCEDURES OF APPEAL

A. No Appeals Committee

The Director in charge shall hear and rule upon all appeals if there is no Appeals Committee (or alternative arrangement under Law 80B2(k)), or if such cannot operate without disturbing the orderly progress of the tournament.

B. Appeals Committee Available

If a committee is available,

  1. The Director in charge shall hear and rule upon such part of the appeal as deals solely with the Law or regulations. His ruling may be appealed to the committee.
     

  2. The Director in charge shall refer all other appeals to the committee for adjudication.

  3. In adjudicating appeals the committee may exercise all powers assigned by these Laws to the Director, except that the committee may not overrule the Director in charge on a point of law or regulations, or on exercise of his Law 91 disciplinary powers. (The committee may recommend to the Director in charge that he change such a ruling.)

C. Further Possibilities of Appeal

  1. Regulating Authorities may establish procedures for further appeals after the foregoing procedures have been exhausted. Any such further appeal, if deemed to lack merit, may be the subject of a sanction imposed by regulation.
     

  2. The Director in charge or the Appeals Committee may refer a matter for later consideration by the Regulating Authority. The Regulating Authority has authority to resolve any matter finally.
     

  3. (a) Notwithstanding 1 and 2 above, where deeming it crucial to the progress of the tournament the Regulating Authority may assign the responsibility for dealing finally with any appeal to the respective tournament Appeals Committee and, along with the parties to the appeal, is then bound by the outcome.

(b) With due notice given to the contestants a Regulating Authority may authorize the omission or modification of such stages as it wishes of the appeals process set out in these Laws.*

* The Regulating Authority is responsible for compliance with any national law that may affect its action.

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