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On behalf of the whole Executive Committee of the World Bridge Federation I wish first to congratulate and thank the Members of the Drafting Sub-Committee for undertaking and completing this onerous task.
They deserve the gratitude of the World Bridge community.
In the course of its development Duplicate Bridge has in many areas moved away from the earlier form of the game and it continues to do so. It is the duty of the World Bridge Federation to review the Laws regularly (the last time was in 1997) as a service to the Zones and the National Bridge Organisations, their Directors and their players.
We acknowledge with pleasure the historic co-operation of the Portland Club, the European Bridge League and the American Contract Bridge League.
Thus the WBF is happy to make its copyright freely available to the NBOs either in English or for translation into their own language.
NBOs may utilise the text on the Web Site (and this foreword if they wish), but if they print in any format they are requested to put the following
The Laws of Duplicate Bridge 2007
World Bridge Federation
with thanks to the members of the Committee:
Max Bavin, Ralph Cohen, Grattan Endicott (co-ordinator) Joan Gerard, Ton Kooijman, Jeffrey Polisner, Antonio Riccardi, William Schoder, John Wignall (Chairman).
The historic co-operation of
The Portland Club
The European Bridge League
The American Contract Bridge League
is gratefully acknowledged
Previously through the 1930s the Laws were promulgated by the Portland Club of London and the Whist Club of New York. From the 40s onwards the American Contract Bridge League Laws Commission replaced the Whist Club, while the British Bridge League and the European Bridge League supplemented the Portland Club’s efforts. The 1975 Laws were also promulgated by the World Bridge Federation, as they were in 1987 and 1997.
This latest revision supersedes the 1997 Code. Zonal authorities may implement the Code at any time after 1st January 2008 but before 30th September 2008.
Over the years there has been a marked increase in the expertise and experience of Directors, which has been recognized in the new Code by the increased responsibilities given to them. In addition, the Appeals process has been improved considerably by the introduction of the “Code of Practice for Appeals Committees”, to which attention is drawn.
The Drafting Committee notes with sorrow the passing of Ralph Cohen during the drafting of the new Code and the earlier passing of Edgar Kaplan. The assistance of Antonio Riccardi is acknowledged together with that of David Davenport of the Portland Club.
The Drafting Committee also acknowledges with gratitude the substantial contributions of Anna Gudge, Richard Hills and Rick Assad. The Code, however, would not have been produced without the dedication and hard work of its Coordinator, Grattan Endicott.
The Drafting Committee consisted of:
Max Bavin Ralph Cohen Joan Gerard Ton Kooijman Jeffrey Polisner William Schoder Grattan Endicott (Co-ordinator) John Wignall (Chairman)
John R. Wignall, MNZM
NBOs should be aware of the intention to publish an
Appendix to the 2007 Laws giving illustrations and examples showing the
working and intention of the Laws. It is the beginning of development of a
The Laws are designed to define correct procedure and to provide an adequate remedy when there is a departure from correct procedure. They are primarily designed not as punishment for irregularities but rather for the rectification of situations where non-offenders may otherwise be damaged. Players should be ready to accept gracefully any rectification or adjusted score awarded by the Director.
There have been many developments in duplicate bridge over the last ten years and there are no signs that these changes have stopped. The task that confronted the Drafting Committee was to ensure the Laws were updated so as to cope with past changes and to establish a framework that can cope with future developments.
Directors have been given considerably more discretionary powers. There are fewer automatic penalties: they are replaced by the concept of rectification of a situation that unfortunately has arisen. Bridge is played in different ways in different countries so the Laws give more power to Regulating Authorities to make controlling regulations. This is particularly so in the area of Special Partnership Understandings, in itself a new concept. Artificial bidding is a fact of life so an attempt has been made to solve problems, or to allow Regulating Authorities to solve problems, that arise when something goes wrong.
We have tried to clarify the areas of responsibility of Regulating Authorities, Tournament Organizers and Directors and it is made clear that certain responsibilities may be either assigned or delegated.
Many headings present in the 1997 Laws have been removed in the interests of streamlining their appearance. Where headings remain they do not limit the application of any law, nor indeed does the omission of a cross-reference.
Established usage has been retained in regard to “may” do (failure to do it is not wrong), “does” (establishes correct procedure without suggesting that violation be penalized) “should” do (failure to do it is an infraction jeopardizing the infractor’s rights but not often penalized), “shall” do (a violation will incur a procedural penalty more often than not), “must” do (the strongest word, a serious matter indeed). Again, “must not” is the strongest prohibition, “shall not” is strong but “may not” is stronger – just short of “must not”.
For the avoidance of doubt, this Introduction and the Definitions that follow form part of the Laws. Finally, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, the singular includes the plural and the masculine includes the feminine, and vice versa.
LHO — Left-hand opponent.
Matchpoint — a unit of scoring awarded to a contestant as a result of comparison with one or more other scores. See Law 78A.
Odd Trick — each trick to be won by declarer’s side in excess of six.
Opening Lead — the card led to the first trick.
Opponent — a player of the other side; a member of the partnership to which one is opposed.
Overtrick — each trick won by declarer’s side in excess of the contract.
Pack — the 52 playing cards with which the game is played.
Partner — the player with whom one plays as a side against the other two players at the table.
Partscore — 90 or fewer trick points scored on one deal.
Pass — a call specifying that a player does not, at that turn, elect to bid, double or redouble.
Penalty — (See also ‘Rectification’) — penalties are of two kinds: disciplinary — those applied for the maintenance of courtesy and good order (see Law 91), and procedural — penalties (additional to any rectification) awarded in the Director’s discretion in cases of procedural irregularities (see Law 90).
Penalty card — a card subject to disposition under Law 50.
Play — 1. The contribution of a card from one’s hand to a trick, including the first card, which is the lead. 2. The aggregate of plays made. 3. The period during which the cards are played. 4. The aggregate of the calls and plays on a board.
Play period — commences when the opening lead on a board is faced; contestants’ rights and powers in the play period each expire as the relevant Law provides. The play period itself ends when the cards are removed from their slots on the subsequent board (or when the last board of a round is quitted).
Premium Points — any points earned other than trick points (see Law 77).
Psychic call (commonly ‘psych[e]‘ or ‘psychic’) — a deliberate and gross misstatement of honour strength and/or of suit length.
Rectification — the remedial provisions to be applied when an irregularity has come to the Director’s attention.
Redouble — a call over an opponent’s double, increasing the scoring value of fulfilled or defeated contracts (see Laws 19B and 77).
Retracted — see “Withdrawn”.
RHO — Right-hand opponent.
Rotation — the clockwise progression of the normal turns to call or play; also the clockwise order in which, one at a time, the cards are recommended to be dealt.
Round — a part of a session played without progression of players.
Session — an extended period of play during which a number of boards, specified by the Tournament Organizer, is scheduled to be played. (May have different meanings as between Laws 4, 12C2 and 91.)
Side — two players at a table who constitute a partnership against the other two players.
Slam — A contract to win six odd tricks (called Small Slam), or to win seven odd tricks (called Grand Slam).
Sorted deck — a pack of cards not randomized from its prior condition.
Suit — One of four groups of cards in the pack, each group comprising thirteen cards and having a characteristic symbol: spades (♠), hearts (♥), diamonds (♦), clubs (♣).
Team — two or more pairs playing in different compass
different tables but for a common score (applicable regulations may
permit teams of more than four members).
Trick — the unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, composed unless flawed, of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.
Trick Points — points scored by declarer’s side for fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).
Trump — each card of the denomination named in a suit contract.
Turn — the correct time at which a player is due to call or play.
Undertrick — each trick by which declarer’s side falls short of fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).
Unintended — involuntary; not under control of the will; not the intention of the player at the moment of his action.
Vulnerability — the conditions for assigning premiums and undertrick penalties (see Law 77).
Withdrawn — actions said to be ‘withdrawn’ include actions that are ‘cancelled’ and cards that are ‘retracted’.
BACK TO TOP
|THE 2007 LAWS OF DUPLICATE BRIDGE|
|LAW 1 - THE PACK - RANK OF CARDS AND SUITS||LAW 2 - THE DUPLICATE BOARDS||LAW 3 - ARRANGEMENT OF TABLES|
|LAW 4 - PARTNERSHIPS||LAW 5 - ASSIGNMENT OF SEATS||LAW 6 -THE SHUFFLE AND DEAL|
|LAW 7 - CONTROL OF BOARD AND CARDS||LAW 8 - SEQUENCE OF ROUNDS||LAW 9 - PROCEDURE FOLLOWING AN IRREGULARITY|
|LAW 10 - ASSESSMENT OF RECTIFICATION||LAW 11 - FORFEITURE OF THE RIGHT TO RECTIFICATION||LAW 12 - DIRECTOR’S DISCRETIONARY POWERS|
|LAW 13 - INCORRECT NUMBER OF CARDS||LAW 14 - MISSING CARD||LAW 15 - PLAY OF A WRONG BOARD|
|LAW 16 AUTHORIZED AND UNAUTHORIZED INFORMATION||LAW 17 - THE AUCTION PERIOD||LAW 18 - BIDS|
|LAW 19 - DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES||LAW 20 - REVIEW AND EXPLANATION OF CALLS||LAW 21 - CALL BASED ON MISINFORMATION|
|LAW 22 – PROCEDURE AFTER THE BIDDING HAS ENDED||LAW 23 - AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL DAMAGE||LAW 24 - CARD EXPOSED OR LED PRIOR TO PLAY PERIOD|
|LAW 25 - LEGAL AND ILLEGAL CHANGES OF CALL||LAW 26 - CALL WITHDRAWN, LEAD RESTRICTIONS||LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID|
|LAW 28 - CALLS CONSIDERED TO BE IN ROTATION||LAW 29 - PROCEDURE AFTER A CALL OUT OF ROTATION||LAW 30 - PASS OUT OF ROTATION|
|LAW 31 - BID OUT OF ROTATION||LAW 32 - DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE OUT OF ROTATION||LAW 33 - SIMULTANEOUS CALLS|
|LAW 34 - RETENTION OF RIGHT TO CALL||LAW 35 - INADMISSIBLE CALLS||LAW 36 - INADMISSIBLE DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES|
|LAW 37 - ACTION VIOLATING OBLIGATION TO PASS||LAW 38 - BID OF MORE THAN SEVEN||LAW 39 - CALL AFTER THE FINAL PASS|
|LAW 40 - PARTNERSHIP UNDERSTANDINGS|
|LAW 41 - COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY||LAW 42 - DUMMY’S RIGHTS|
|LAW 43 - DUMMY’S LIMITATIONS||LAW 44 - SEQUENCE AND PROCEDURE OF PLAY||LAW 45 - CARD PLAYED|
|LAW 46 – INCOMPLETE OR ERRONEOUS CALL OF A CARD FROM DUMMY||LAW 47 - RETRACTION OF CARD PLAYED||LAW 48 - EXPOSURE OF DECLARER’S CARDS|
|LAW 49 - EXPOSURE OF A DEFENDER’S CARDS||LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD||LAW 51 - TWO OR MORE PENALTY CARDS|
|LAW 52 - FAILURE TO LEAD OR PLAY A PENALTY CARD||LAW 53 - LEAD OUT OF TURN ACCEPTED||LAW 54 - FACED OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN|
|LAW 55 - DECLARER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN||LAW 56 - DEFENDER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN||LAW 57 - PREMATURE LEAD OR PLAY|
|LAW 58 - SIMULTANEOUS LEADS OR PLAYS||LAW 59 - INABILITY TO LEAD OR PLAY AS REQUIRED||LAW 60 - PLAY AFTER AN ILLEGAL PLAY|
|LAW 61 - FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUIT - INQUIRIES CONCERNING A REVOKE||LAW 62 - CORRECTION OF A REVOKE||LAW 63 - ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE|
|LAW 64 - PROCEDURE AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE||LAW 65 - ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS||LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS|
|LAW 67 - DEFECTIVE TRICK||LAW 68 - CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS||LAW 69 - AGREED CLAIM OR CONCESSION|
|LAW 70 - CONTESTED CLAIM OR CONCESSION||LAW 71 - CONCESSION CANCELLED||LAW 72 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES|
|LAW 73 - COMMUNICATION||LAW 74 - CONDUCT AND ETIQUETTE||LAW 75 - MISTAKEN EXPLANATION OR MISTAKEN CALL|
|LAW 76 - SPECTATORS||LAW 77 – DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING TABLE||LAW 78 - METHODS OF SCORING AND CONDITIONS OF CONTEST|
|LAW 79 - TRICKS WON||LAW 80 - REGULATION AND ORGANIZATION||LAW 81 - THE DIRECTOR|
|LAW 82 - RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS OF PROCEDURE||LAW 83 - NOTIFICATION OF THE RIGHT TO APPEAL||LAW 84 - RULINGS ON AGREED FACTS|
|LAW 85 - RULINGS ON DISPUTED FACTS||LAW 86 - IN TEAM PLAY OR SIMILAR||LAW 87 - FOULED BOARD|
|LAW 88 - AWARD OF INDEMNITY POINTS||LAW 89 - RECTIFICATION IN INDIVIDUAL EVENTS||LAW 90 - PROCEDURAL PENALTIES|
|LAW 91 - PENALIZE OR SUSPEND||LAW 92 - RIGHT TO APPEAL||LAW 93 - PROCEDURES OF APPEAL|
Duplicate Bridge is
played with a pack of 52 cards, consisting of 13 cards in each of
four suits. The suits rank downward in the order spades (♠), hearts (♥), diamonds (♦), clubs (♣).
The Cards of each suit rank downward in the order Ace, King, Queen, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2.
LAW 2 - THE DUPLICATE BOARDS
A duplicate board containing a pack is provided for each deal to be played during a session. Each board is numbered and has four pockets to hold the four hands, designated North, East, South and West. The dealer and vulnerability are designated as follows:
Neither Side Vulnerable
Both Sides Vulnerable
The same sequence is repeated for Boards 17-32 and for each
subsequent group of 16 boards. No board that fails to conform to these conditions should be used.
If such board is used, however, the conditions marked on it apply for
Four players play at each table, and tables are numbered in a sequence established by the Director. He designates one direction as North; other compass directions assume the normal relationship to North.
The four players at each table constitute two partnerships or sides, North-South against East-West. In pair or team events the contestants enter as pairs or teams respectively and retain the same partnerships throughout a session (except in the case of substitutions authorised by the Director). In individual events each player enters separately, and partnerships change during a session.
A. Initial Position
The Director assigns an initial position to each contestant (individual, pair or team) at the start of a session. Unless otherwise directed, the members of each pair or team may select seats among those assigned to them by mutual agreement. Having once selected a compass direction, a player may change it within a session only upon instruction or with permission of the Director.
B. Change of Direction or Table
Players change their initial compass direction or proceed to another table in accordance with the Director’s instructions. The Director is responsible for clear announcement of instructions; each player is responsible for moving when and as directed and for occupying the correct seat after each change.
A. The Shuffle.
Before play starts, each pack is thoroughly shuffled. There is a cut if either opponent so requests.
B. The Deal
The cards must be dealt face down, one card at a time, into four hands of thirteen cards each; each hand is then placed face down in one of the four pockets of the board. The recommended procedure is that the cards be dealt in rotation, clockwise.
C. Representation of Both Pairs
A member of each side should be present during the shuffle and deal unless the Director instructs otherwise.
D. New Shuffle and Re-deal
If it is ascertained before the auction first begins on a
the cards have been incorrectly dealt or that during the shuffle
deal a player could have seen the face of a card belonging to
player there shall be a new shuffle and deal. Thereafter Law 16C
to the accidental sighting of a card belonging to another
before completion of the play of the board (but see Law 24). Any
illegally dealt board is a fouled board, and for any other
see the relevant Law.
Unless the purpose of the tournament is the replay of past
result may stand if the cards are dealt without shuffle from a
deck* or if the deal has been imported from a different session.
provisions shall not prevent arrangements, where desired, for
of boards between tables.)
Subject to Law 22A, there must be a new shuffle and a redeal
required by the Director for any reason compatible with the Laws
see Law 86C).
E. Director’s Option on Shuffling and Dealing
The Director may instruct that the shuffle and deal be
each table immediately before play starts.
The Director may himself perform the shuffle and deal in
The Director may have his assistants or other appointed
perform the shuffle and deal in advance.
The Director may require a different method of dealing or pre-dealing to produce the same wholly random expectations as from A and B above.
F. Duplication of Board. If required by the conditions of play, one or more exact copies of each original deal may be made under the Director’s instructions. When he so instructs there shall normally be no redeal of a board (although the Director has powers to order it).
* A ‘sorted deck’ is a pack of cards not randomized from its prior condition.
A. Placement of Board.
When a board is to be played it is placed in the centre of the table until play is completed.
B. Removal of Cards from Board
Each player takes a hand from the pocket corresponding to
Each player counts his cards face down to be sure he has
thirteen; after that, and before making a call, he must inspect
thefaces of his cards.
During play each player retains possession of his own cards, not permitting them to be mixed with those of any other player. No player shall touch any cards other than his own (but declarer may play dummy’s cards in accordance with Law 45) during or after play except by permission of the Director.
C. Returning Cards to Board
After play has finished, each player should shuffle his original thirteen cards, after which he restores them to the pocket corresponding to his compass position. Thereafter no hand shall be removed from the board unless a member of each side, or the Director, is present.
D. Responsibility for Procedures
. Any contestant remaining at a table throughout a session is primarily responsible for maintaining proper conditions of play at the table.
A. Movement of Boards and Players
The Director instructs the players as to the proper movement
boards and progression of contestants.
Unless the Director instructs otherwise, the North player at each table is responsible for moving the boards just completed at his table to the proper table for the following round.
B. End of Round
In general, a round ends when the Director gives the signal
start of the following round; but if any table has not completed
that time, the round continues for that table until there has
progression of players.
When the Director exercises his authority to postpone play of a board, for that board the round does not end for the players concerned until the board has been played and the score agreed and recorded or the Director has cancelled the play of the board.
C. End of Last Round and End of Session
. The last round of a session, and the session itself, ends for each table when play of all boards scheduled at that table has been completed, and when all scores have been entered without objection.
A. Drawing Attention to an Irregularity
Unless prohibited by Law, any player may draw attention to
irregularity during the auction period, whether or not it is his
Unless prohibited by Law, declarer or either defender may
attention to an irregularity that occurs during the play period.
incorrectly pointed card see Law 65B3.
When an irregularity has occurred dummy may not draw
attention to it
during the play period but may do so after play of the hand is
concluded. However any player, including dummy, may attempt to
another player’s committing an irregularity (but for dummy
Laws 42 and 43).
There is no obligation to draw attention to an infraction of
committed by one’s own side (but see Law 20F5 for correction of
partner’s apparently mistaken explanation).
B. After Attention Is Drawn to an Irregularity
1. (a) The Director should be summoned at once when attention is drawn to an irregularity.
Any player, including dummy, may summon the Director after
attention has been drawn to an irregularity.
(c) Summoning the Director does not cause a player to forfeit any rights to which he might otherwise be entitled.
(d) The fact that a player draws attention to an irregularity committed by his side does not affect the rights of the opponents.
2. No player shall take any action until the Director has explained all matters in regard to rectification.
C. Premature Correction of an Irregularity
Any premature correction of an irregularity by the offender may subject him to a further rectification (see the lead restrictions in Law 26).
LAW 10 - ASSESSMENT OF RECTIFICATION
A. Right to Determine Rectification
The Director alone has the right to determine rectifications when applicable. Players do not have the right to determine (or waive – see Law 81C5) rectifications on their own initiative.
B. Cancellation of Enforcement or Waiver of Rectification
The Director may allow or cancel any enforcement or waiver of a rectification made by the players without his instructions.
C. Choice after Irregularity
When these Laws provide an option after an irregularity, the
shall explain all the options available.
If a player has an option after an irregularity, he must
selection without consulting partner.
When these Laws provide the innocent side with an option
irregularity committed by an opponent, it is appropriate to
most advantageous action.
Subject to Law 16D2, after rectification of an infraction it
appropriate for the offenders to make any call or play
their side, even though they thereby appear to profit through
infraction (but see Laws 27 and 50).
LAW 11 - FORFEITURE OF THE RIGHT TO RECTIFICATION
A. Action by Non-Offending Side
The right to rectification of an irregularity may be forfeited if either member of the non-offending side takes any action before summoning the Director. The Director does so rule, for example, when the non-offending side may have gained through subsequent action taken by an opponent in ignorance of the relevant provisions of the law.
B. Penalty after Forfeiture of the Right to Rectification.
Even after the right to rectification has been forfeited under this Law, the Director may assess a procedural penalty (see Law 90).
LAW 12 - DIRECTOR’S DISCRETIONARY POWERS
A. Power to Award an Adjusted Score.
On the application of a player within the period established under Law 92B or on his own initiative the Director may award an adjusted score when these Laws empower him to do so (in team play see Law 86). This includes:
The Director may award an adjusted score when he judges that
Laws do not provide indemnity to a non-offending contestant for
particular type of violation committed by an opponent.
The Director awards an artificial adjusted score if no
can be made that will permit normal play of the board (see C2
The Director may award an adjusted score if there has been an incorrect rectification of an irregularity.
B. Objectives of Score Adjustment
The objective of score adjustment is to redress damage to a
non-offending side and to take away any advantage gained by an
side through its infraction. Damage exists when, because of an
infraction, an innocent side obtains a table result less
would have been the expectation had the infraction not occurred
The Director may not award an adjusted score on the ground that the rectification provided in these Laws is either unduly severe or advantageous to either side.
C. Awarding an Adjusted Score
1. (a) When after an irregularity the Director is empowered by these laws to adjust a score and is able to award an assigned adjusted score, he does so. Such a score replaces the score obtained in play.
(b) If, subsequent to the irregularity, the non-offending side has contributed to its own damage by a serious error (unrelated to the infraction) or by wild or gambling action it does not receive relief in the adjustment for such part of the damage as is self-inflicted. The offending side should be awarded the score that it would have been allotted as the consequence of its infraction only.
(c) In order to do equity, and unless the Regulating Authority forbids it, an assigned adjusted score may be weighted to reflect the probabilities of a number of potential results.
(d) If the possibilities are numerous or not obvious, the Director may award an artificial adjusted score.
(e) In its discretion the Regulating Authority may apply all or part of the following procedure in place of (c):
(i) The score assigned in place of the actual score for a non-offending side is the most favourable result that was likely had the irregularity not occurred.
(ii) For an offending side the score assigned is the most unfavourable result that was at all probable.
(f) The scores awarded to the two sides need not balance.
2. (a) When owing to an irregularity no result can be obtained [and seeC1(d)] the Director awards an artificial adjusted score according to responsibility for the irregularity: average minus (at most 40% of the available matchpoints in pairs) to a contestant directly at fault, average (50% in pairs) to a contestant only partly at fault, and average plus (at least 60% in pairs) to a contestant in no way at fault.
When the Director awards an artificial
adjusted score of average plus or minus at international match
points that score is normally plus or minus 3 imps, but this may
be varied as Law 86A allows.
(c) The foregoing is modified for a non-offending contestant that obtains a session score exceeding 60% of the available matchpoints or for an offending contestant that obtains a session score that is less than 40% of the available matchpoints (or the equivalent in imps). Such contestants are awarded the percentage obtained (or the equivalent in imps) on the other boards of that session.
In individual events the Director enforces the
these Laws, and the provisions requiring the award of adjusted
equally against both members of the offending side even though
of them may be responsible for the irregularity. But the
not award a procedural penalty against the offender’s partner if
opinion that he is in no way to blame.
When the Director awards non-balancing adjusted scores in knockout play, each contestant’s score on the board is calculated separately and the average of them is assigned to each.
LAW 13 - INCORRECT NUMBER OF CARDS
A. Director Deems Normal Play
When the Director determines that one or more hands of the board
contained an incorrect number of cards (but see Law 14) and a player
with an incorrect hand has made a call, then when the Director deems
that the deal can be corrected and played the deal may be so played
no change of call. At the end of play the Director may award an
B. Adjusted Score and Possible Penalty
Otherwise when a call has been made the Director shall award an adjusted score and may penalize an offender.
C. Play Completed
When it is determined after play ends that a player’s hand originally contained more than 13 cards with another player holding fewer (but see Law 13F), the result must be cancelled and an adjusted score awarded (Law 86D may apply). An offending contestant is liable to a procedural penalty.
D. No Call Made
If a player is found to have an incorrect number of cards and no
has been made on his hand:
The Director shall correct the discrepancy and, if no player
then have seen another’s card, shall require that the board be
When the Director determines that one or more pockets of the board contained an incorrect number of cards and a player has seen one or more cards of another player’s hand, if the Director deems:
(a) that the unauthorized information is unlikely to interfere with normal bidding or play, the Director allows the board to be played and scored. If he then considers the information has affected the outcome of the board the Director shall adjust the score and may penalize an offender.
that the unauthorized information gained thereby is of
importance to interfere with normal bidding or play the Director
award an artificial adjusted score and may penalize an offender.
Placement or Movement of Card
When under this Law the Director requires play to continue,
the placement or movement of a card by the Director is unauthorized
information for the partner of a player whose hand contained an
incorrect number of cards.
F. Surplus Card
Any surplus card not part of the deal is removed if found. The auction and play continue unaffected. If such a card is found to have been played to a quitted trick an adjusted score may be awarded.
When one or more hand(s) is/are found to contain fewer than 13
with no hand having more than 13, before the opening lead is faced,
Director makes a search for any missing card, and:
if the card is found, it is restored to the deficient hand.
if the card cannot be found, the Director reconstructs the
substituting another pack.
the auction and play continue normally without alteration of any of the calls made, the restored hand being deemed to have contained all of its cards continuously throughout.
B. Hand Found Deficient Afterwards
When one or more hand(s) is/are found to contain fewer than 13
with no hand having more than 13, at any time after the opening lead
faced (until the end of the Correction Period), the Director makes a
search for any missing card, and:
if the card is found among the played cards, Law 67 applies.
if the card is found elsewhere, it is restored to the
Rectification and/or penalties may apply (see 4 following).
if the card cannot be found, the deal is reconstructed using
pack. Rectification and/or penalties may apply (see 4
a card restored to a hand under the provisions of Section B
Law is deemed to have belonged continuously to the deficient
may become a penalty card (Law 50), and failure to have played
constitute a revoke.
C. Information from Replacement of a Card
Knowledge of the replacement of a card is unauthorized for the partner of a player whose hand contained an incorrect number of cards.
LAW 15 - PLAY OF A WRONG BOARD
A. Players Have Not Previously Played Board
If players play a board not designated for them to play in the
round (but see C):
The Director normally allows the score to stand if none of
players have previously played the board.
The Director may require both pairs to play the correct
one another later.
B. One or More Players Have Previously Played Board
If any player plays a board he has previously played, with the
opponents or otherwise, his second score on the board is cancelled
for his side and his opponents, and the Director shall award an
artificial adjusted score to the contestants deprived of the
to earn a valid score.
C. Discovered during Auction Period
If, during the auction period, the Director discovers that a
is playing a board not designated for him to play in the current
he shall cancel the auction, ensure that the correct contestants are
seated and that they are informed of their rights both now and at
rounds. A second auction begins. Players must repeat the calls they
previously. If any call differs in any way from the corresponding
in the first auction the Director shall cancel the board. Otherwise
auction and play continue normally. The Director may award a
penalty (and an adjusted score) if of the opinion that there has
purposeful attempt by either side to preclude normal play of the
LAW 16 AUTHORIZED AND UNAUTHORIZED INFORMATION
A. Players’ Use of Information
1. A player may use information in the auction or play if:
it derives from the legal calls and plays of the current
(including illegal calls and plays that are accepted) and is
by unauthorized information from another source; or
(b) it is authorized information from a withdrawn action (see D); or
it is information specified in any law or regulation to be
authorized or, when not otherwise specified, arising from the
procedures authorized in these laws and in regulations (but see
(d) it is information that the player possessed before he took his hand from the board (Law 7B) and the Laws do not preclude his use of this information.
Players may also take account of their estimate of their own
of the traits of their opponents, and any requirement of the
No player may base a call or play on other information (such
information being designated extraneous).
If there is a violation of this law causing damage the
adjusts the score in accordance with Law 12C.
B. Extraneous Information from Partner
1. (a) After a player makes available to his partner extraneous
information that may suggest a call or play, as for example by a
a question, a reply to a question, an unexpected* alert or failure
alert, or by unmistakable hesitation, unwonted speed, special emphasis,tone, gesture, movement, or mannerism, the partner may not choose from among logical alternatives one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the extraneous information.
(b) A logical alternative action is one that, among the class of
players in question and using the methods of the partnership, would
given serious consideration by a significant proportion of such
of whom it is judged some might select it.
When a player considers that an opponent has made such
available and that damage could well result he may announce,
prohibited by the Regulating Authority (which may require that
Director be called), that he reserves the right to summon the
later (the opponents should summon the Director immediately if
dispute the fact that unauthorized information might have been
When a player has substantial reason to believe that an
had a logical alternative has chosen an action that could have
suggested by such information, he should summon the Director
ends**. The Director shall assign an adjusted score (see Law
12C) if he
considers that an infraction of law has resulted in an advantage
C. Extraneous Information from Other Sources
1. When a player accidentally receives unauthorized information about a board he is playing or has yet to play, as by looking at the wrong hand; by overhearing calls, results or remarks; by seeing cards at another table; or by seeing a card belonging to another player at his own table before the auction begins, the Director should be notified forthwith, preferably by the recipient of the information.
2. If the Director considers that the information could interfere with normal play he may, before any call has been made:
a) adjust the players’ positions at the table, if the type of contest and scoring permit, so that the player with information about one hand will hold that hand; or
(b) if the form of competition allows of it order the board redealt for those contestants; or
allow completion of the play of the board standing ready to
an adjusted score if he judges that unauthorized information may
affected the result; or
(d) award an artificial adjusted score.
3. If such unauthorized information is received after the first
the auction has been made and before completion of the play of the
the Director proceeds as in 2(c).
D. Information from Withdrawn Calls and Plays
When a call or play has been withdrawn as these laws provide:
For a non-offending side, all information arising from a
action is authorized, whether the action be its own or its
For an offending side, information arising from its own
action and from withdrawn actions of the non-offending side is
unauthorized. A player of an offending side may not choose from
logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have
suggested over another by the unauthorized information.
* i.e. unexpected in relation to the basis of his action.
** it is not an infraction to call the Director earlier or later.
LAW 17 - THE AUCTION PERIOD
A. Auction Period Starts
The auction period on a deal begins for a side when either
withdraws his cards from the board.
B. The First Call
The player designated by the board as dealer makes the first
C. Successive Calls
The player to dealer’s left makes the second call, and thereafter
player calls in turn in a clockwise rotation.
D. Cards from Wrong Board
A call is cancelled if it is made by a player on cards that
picked up from a wrong board.
After looking at the correct hand the offender calls
again and the
auction continues normally from that point. If offender’s
called over the cancelled call the Director shall award
artificial adjusted scores when offender’s substituted call
differs* from his
cancelled call (offender’s LHO must repeat the previous
call) or if the
offender’s partner has subsequently called over the
If the offender subsequently repeats his call on the board
which he mistakenly drew his cards the Director may allow that
be played normally, but the Director shall award artificial
scores when offender’s call differs* from his original cancelled
A procedural penalty (Law 90) may be assessed in addition to
rectifications under 2 and 3 above.
E. End of Auction Period
The auction and the auction period end as Law 22 provides.
When a call has been followed by three passes the auction
end if one of those passes was out of rotation, depriving a
his right to call at that turn. When this occurs the auction
the player who missed his turn, all subsequent passes are
the auction proceeds normally. Law 16D applies to the cancelled
any player who has passed out of rotation being an offender.
* For example, a substituted call differs if its meaning is much
different or if it is psychic.
LAW 18 - BIDS
A. Proper Form
A bid designates a number of odd tricks (tricks in excess of
one to seven, and a denomination. (Pass, double and redouble are
but not bids.)
B. To Supersede a Bid
A bid supersedes a previous bid if it designates either the same
of odd tricks in a higher-ranking denomination or a greater number
odd tricks in any denomination.
C. Sufficient Bid
A bid that supersedes the last preceding bid is a sufficient bid.
D. Insufficient Bid
A bid that fails to supersede the last preceding bid is an
E. Rank of the Denominations
The rank of the denominations in descending order is: no trump,
hearts, diamonds, clubs.
F. Different Methods
Regulating Authorities may authorize different methods of making calls.
LAW 19 - DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES
A player may double only the last preceding bid. That bid
been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must not have
In doubling, a player should not state the number of odd
the denomination. The only correct form is the single word
If a player, in doubling, incorrectly states the bid, or the
of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to have doubled
as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized Information — may apply.)
A player may redouble only the last preceding double. That
must have been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must
In redoubling, a player should not state the number of odd
the denomination. The only correct form is the single word
If a player, in redoubling, incorrectly states the doubled
the number of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to
redoubled the bid as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized
C. Double or Redouble Superseded
Any double or redouble is superseded by a subsequent legal bid.
D. Scoring a Doubled or Redoubled Contract
If a doubled or redoubled bid is not followed by a subsequent legal bid, scoring values are increased as provided in Law 77.
A. Call Not Clearly Recognized
A player may require clarification forthwith if he is in doubt
has been made.
B. Review of Auction during Auction Period
During the auction period, a player is entitled to have all
calls restated* when it is his turn to call, unless he is required
law to pass. Alerts should be included when responding to the
A player may not ask for a partial review of previous calls and may
halt the review before it is completed.
C. Review after Final Pass
After the final pass either defender has the right to ask if
his opening lead (see Laws 47E and 41).
Declarer** or either defender may, at his first turn to
all previous calls to be restated*. (See Laws 41B and 41C). As
in B the
player may not ask for only a partial restatement or halt the
D. Who May Review the Auction
A request to have calls restated* shall be responded to only by
E. Correction of Error in Review
All players, including dummy or a player required by law to pass,
responsible for prompt correction of errors in restatement* (see Law
12C1 when an uncorrected review causes damage).
F. Explanation of Calls
During the auction and before the final pass, any player may
but only at his own turn to call, an explanation of the
prior auction. He is entitled to know about calls actually made,
relevant alternative calls available that were not made, and
relevant inferences from the choice of action where these are
partnership understanding. Except on the instruction of the
replies should be given by the partner of the player who made
in question. The partner of a player who asks a question may not
supplementary question until his turn to call or play. Law 16 may apply and the Regulating Authority may establish regulations for written explanations.
After the final pass and throughout the play period, either
at his own turn to play may request an explanation of the
auction. At his turn to play from his hand or from dummy
request an explanation of a defender’s call or card play
Explanations should be given on a like basis to 1 and by the
the player whose action
Under 1 and 2 above a player may ask concerning a single
call but Law
16B1 may apply.
If a player subsequently realizes that his own explanation
erroneous or incomplete he must call the Director immediately.
Director applies Law 21B or Law 40B4.
(a) A player whose partner has given a mistaken explanation
correct the error during the auction, nor may he indicate in any
that a mistake has been made. ‘Mistaken explanation’ here
failure to alert or announce as regulations require or an alert
announcement) that regulations do not require.
(b) The player must call the Director and inform his opponents that, in his opinion, his partner’s explanation was erroneous (see Law 75) but only at his first legal opportunity, which is
(i) for a defender, at the end of the play.
for declarer or dummy, after the final pass of the auction.
6. If the Director judges that a player has based an action on
misinformation given to him by an opponent see, as appropriate, Law
or Law 47E.
G. Incorrect Procedure
It is improper to ask a question solely for partner’s
Except as the Regulating Authority allows a player may not consult his own system card and notes during the auction and play periods, but see Law 40B2(b).
* When the calls are not spoken responders must ensure that it is
to an enquiring opponent what calls have been made.
** Declarer’s first turn to play is from dummy unless accepting an opening lead out of turn.
LAW 21 - CALL BASED ON MISINFORMATION
A. Call Based on Caller’s Misunderstanding
No rectification or redress is due to a player who acts on the
his own misunderstanding.
B. Call Based on Misinformation from an Opponent
1. (a) Until the end of the auction period and provided that his
has not subsequently called, a player may change a call without
rectification for his side when the Director judges that the
make the call could well have been influenced by misinformation
the player by an opponent (see Law 17E). Failure to alert promptly
an alert is required by the Regulating Authority is deemed
(b) The Director is to presume Mistaken Explanation rather than
Mistaken Call in the absence of evidence to the contrary.
When a player elects to change a call because of
in 1 preceding), his LHO may then in turn change any subsequent
may have made, without other rectification unless at the end of
the Director judges his withdrawn call to have conveyed such
as to damage the non-offending side in which case Law 16D
When it is too late to change a call and the Director judges that the offending side gained an advantage from the irregularity he awards an adjusted score.
A. End of Auction
The auction ends when:
all four players pass (but see Law 25). The hands are
returned to the
board without play. There shall not be a redeal.
one or more players having bid, there are three consecutive
rotation subsequent to the last bid. The last bid becomes the
(but see Law 19D).
B. End of Auction Period
The auction period ends when, subsequent to the end of the
in A2, either defender faces an opening lead. (If the lead is
turn then see Law 54). The interval between the end of the
the end of the auction period is designated the Clarification
If no player bids (see A1) the auction period ends when all four hands have been returned to the board.
Whenever, in the opinion of the Director, an offender could
aware at the time of his irregularity that this could well damage
non-offending side, he shall require the auction and play to
(if not completed). When the play has been completed the Director
awards an adjusted score if he considers the offending side has gained
advantage through the irregularity*.
* as, for example, by partner’s enforced pass.
LAW 24 - CARD EXPOSED OR LED PRIOR TO PLAY PERIOD
When the Director determines that during the auction period
because of a
player’s own error one or more cards of that player’s hand were in
position for the face to be seen by his partner, the Director shall
require that every such card be left face up on the table until the
auction period ends. Information from cards thus exposed is
for the non-offending side but unauthorized for the offending side.
the offender becomes declarer or dummy the cards are picked up and
returned to the hand. If the offender becomes a defender every such
becomes a penalty card (see Law 50), then:
A. Low Card Not Prematurely Led
If it is a single card below the rank of an honour and not
led, there is no further rectification.
B. Single Card of Honour Rank or Card Prematurely Led
If it is a single card of honour rank or is any card prematurely
offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see
23 when a pass damages the non-offending side).
C. Two or More Cards Are Exposed
If two or more cards are so exposed offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when a pass damages the non-offending side).
LAW 25 - LEGAL AND ILLEGAL CHANGES OF CALL
A. Unintended Call
Until his partner makes a call, a player may substitute his
call for an unintended call but only if he does so, or attempts
so, without pause for thought. The second (intended) call stands
subject to the appropriate Law.
No substitution of call may be made when his partner has
If the auction ends before it reaches the player’s partner
substitution may occur after the end of the auction period (see
If a substitution is allowed the LHO may withdraw any call
over the first call. Information from the withdrawn call is
only to his side. There is no further rectification.
B. Call Intended
A substituted call not permitted by A may be accepted by the
offender’s LHO. (It is accepted if LHO calls intentionally over
first call is then withdrawn, the second call stands and the
Except as in 1 a substitution not permitted by A is
original call stands and the auction continues.
Law 16D applies to a call withdrawn or cancelled.
LAW 26 - CALL WITHDRAWN, LEAD RESTRICTIONS
When an offending player’s call is withdrawn, and he chooses a
different* final call for that turn, then if he becomes a defender:
A. Call Related to Specific Suit
if the withdrawn call related solely to a specified suit or suits
no other suit), and
if each such suit was specified in the legal auction by the
player there is no lead restriction, but see Law 16D.
if any suit specified in the withdrawn call was not specified by the same player in the legal auction then, at offender’s partner’s first turn to lead (which may be the opening lead), declarer may either,
(a) require the offender’s partner to lead such a suit (if there are more than one declarer chooses the suit; or
(b) prohibit offender’s partner from leading (one) such suit. Such prohibition continues for as long as the offender’s partner retains the lead.
Other Withdrawn Calls
For other withdrawn calls, declarer may prohibit offender’s
leading any one suit at his first turn to lead, including the
prohibition to continue for as long as offender’s partner retains
* A call repeated with a much different meaning shall be deemed a different call.
LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID
A. Acceptance of Insufficient Bid
Any insufficient bid may be accepted (treated as legal) at
of offender’s LHO. It is accepted if that player calls.
If a player makes an insufficient bid out of rotation, Law
B. Insufficient Bid Not Accepted
If an insufficient bid in rotation is not accepted it must be
by the substitution of a legal call.
C. Replaced at Lowest Level by Bid, Double or Pass
If the insufficient bid is replaced by a bid at the lowest
level or double or pass that incorporates the information
the insufficient bid, the auction and play continues with the
information arising from the withdrawn bid authorized for both
(Law 16D does not apply), but see 2 following.
At the end of the play the Director shall award an adjusted
he judges that without assistance from the insufficient bid the
could well have been different*, and the non-offending side is
D. Replaced by Any Other Call
If the insufficient bid is replaced, except as 27C1 allows,
bid or a pass the offender’s partner must pass whenever it is
to call. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law
If the insufficient bid is replaced by a double or redouble,
as 27C1 allows, the double or redouble must be withdrawn and
a pass. The offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn
call. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law 23.
E. Premature Replacement
If the offender replaces his insufficient bid before the Director
ruled on rectification, unless the insufficient bid is accepted as A
allows, his substitution stands. The Director applies C, D or F,
F. Replaced with an Insufficient Bid
If the offender attempts to replace the insufficient bid with
insufficient bid the attempted call is cancelled and a pass is
substituted. His partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call.
lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply and see Law 23.
* as to number of odd tricks, denomination, or declarer
LAW 28 - CALLS CONSIDERED TO BE IN ROTATION
A. RHO Required to Pass
A call is considered to be in rotation when it is made by a
his RHO’s turn to call if that opponent is required by law to pass.
B. Call by Correct Player Cancelling Call Out of Rotation
A call is considered to be in rotation when made by a player
it was to call before rectification has been assessed for a call out
rotation by an opponent. Making such a call forfeits the right to
rectification for the call out of rotation. The auction proceeds as
though the opponent had not called at that turn, but Law 16D2
LAW 29 - PROCEDURE AFTER A CALL OUT OF ROTATION
A. Forfeiture of Right to Rectification
Following a call out of rotation offender’s LHO may elect to call
thereby forfeiting the right to any rectification.
B. Out-of-Rotation Call Cancelled
Unless A applies, a call out of rotation is cancelled and the
reverts to the player whose turn it was to call. Offender may make
legal call in proper rotation, but his side may be subject to the
provisions for rectification in Law 30, 31 or 32.
C. Call Out of Rotation Is Artificial
If a call out of rotation is artificial, the provisions of Laws 30, 31 and 32 apply to the denomination(s) specified, rather than the denomination named.
LAW 30 - PASS OUT OF ROTATION
When a player has passed out of rotation and the call is
option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the following
apply (if the pass is artificial see C):
A. Before Any Player Has Bid
When a player has passed out of rotation before any player has
offender must pass when next it is his turn to call and Law 23 may
B. After Any Player Has Bid
When a pass out of rotation is made at offender’s RHO’s turn
after any player has bid, offender must pass when next it is his
(a) When, after any player has bid, the offender passes out of rotation at his partner’s turn to call, the offender must pass whenever it is his turn to call, and Law 23 may apply.
b) Offender’s partner may make any sufficient bid, or may pass,
may not double or redouble at that turn, and Law 23 may apply.
3. After any player has bid a pass out of rotation at offender’s
turn to call is treated as a change of call. Law 25 applies.
C. When Pass Is Artificial
When a pass out of rotation is artificial or is a pass of an
call, Law 31, not Law 30, applies.
LAW 31 - BID OUT OF ROTATION
When a player has bid out of rotation, has passed artificially or
passed partner’s artificial call (see Law 30C), and the call is
cancelled the option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the
A. RHO’s Turn
When the offender has called at his RHO’s turn to call, then:
If that opponent passes, offender must repeat the call out
rotation, and when that call is legal there is no rectification.
If that opponent makes a legal* bid, double or redouble,
make any legal call; when this call
repeats the denomination of his bid out of rotation,
partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23).
(b) does not repeat the denomination of his bid out of rotation, or if the call out of rotation was an artificial pass or a pass of partner’s artificial call, the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply, and offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (seeLaw 23).
Partner’s or LHO’s Turn
When the offender has bid at his partner’s turn to call, or at
turn to call, if the offender has not previously called**,
partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when
the pass damages the non-offending side). The lead restrictions of
* An illegal call by RHO is rectified as usual.
**Later calls at LHO’s turn to call are treated as changes of call, and Law 25 applies.
LAW 32 - DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE OUT OF ROTATION
A double or redouble out of rotation may be accepted at the
the opponent next in rotation (see Law 29A), except that an
double or redouble may never be accepted (if offender’s LHO
calls see Law 36). If the call out of rotation is not accepted it is
cancelled, the lead restriction in Law 26B may apply, and:
A. Made at Offender’s Partner’s Turn to Call
if a double or redouble out of rotation has been made when it was
offender’s partner’s turn to call the offender’s partner must pass
whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 if the pass damages the
B. Made at RHO’s Turn to Call
if a double or redouble out of rotation has been made at
RHO’s turn to call, then:
If offender’s RHO passes, offender must repeat his
double or redouble and there is no rectification unless the
redouble is inadmissible, in which case Law 36 applies.
If offender’s RHO bids, doubles or redoubles, the offender
turn make any legal call but offender’s partner must pass
whenever it is
his turn to call. See Law 23 if the pass damages the
LAW 33 - SIMULTANEOUS CALLS
A call made simultaneously with one made by the player whose turn it was to call is deemed to be a subsequent call.
LAW 34 - RETENTION OF RIGHT TO CALL
When following a call there have been three consecutive passes, one or more being out of rotation, Law 17E2 applies.
LAW 35 - INADMISSIBLE CALLS
The following calls are inadmissible:
A double or redouble not permitted by Law 19. Law 36
A bid, double or redouble by a player required to pass. Law
A bid of more than seven. Law 38 applies.
A call after the final pass of the auction. Law 39 applies.
LAW 36 - INADMISSIBLE DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES
A. Offender’s LHO Calls before Rectification
If offender’s LHO calls before rectification of an inadmissible
or redouble the inadmissible call and all subsequent calls are
cancelled. The auction reverts to the player whose turn it was to
and proceeds as though there had been no irregularity. The lead
restrictions in Law 26 do not apply.
B. Offender’s LHO does not Call before Rectification
When A does not apply
any double or redouble not permitted by Law 19 is cancelled.
the offender must substitute a legal call, the auction
the offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to
Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.
if the call is out of turn the auction reverts to the player whose turn it was to call, the offender may make any legal call at his turn, and his partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.
LAW 37 - ACTION VIOLATING OBLIGATION TO PASS
A. Offender’s LHO Calls before Rectification
If the inadmissible call was a bid or a double or redouble by a
required by law to pass (but not an action contrary to Law 19A1 or
19B1) and offender’s LHO calls before the Director has ruled on
rectification, that call and all subsequent calls stand. If the
was required to pass for the remainder of the auction he must still pass at subsequent turns. The lead restrictions in Law 26 do not apply.
B. Offender’s LHO does not Call before Rectification
When A does not apply:
any bid, double or redouble, by a player required by law to
a pass is substituted, the auction continues and each member of the offending side must pass whenever it is his turn to call. Law 23 may apply. The lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.
A. No Play Permissible.
No play of a contract of more than seven is ever permissible.
B. Bid and Subsequent Calls Cancelled.
A bid of more than seven is cancelled together with any subsequent calls.
C. Offending Side Must Pass.
A pass must be substituted; the auction continues unless completed and each member of the offending side must pass whenever it is his turn to call.
D. Possible Lack of Recourse to Laws 23 and 26.
Law 23 may apply and the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply, except that if the offender’s LHO had called subsequent to the infraction and before rectification there is no recourse to these Laws.
LAW 39 - CALL AFTER THE FINAL PASS
A. Calls Cancelled
All calls after the final pass of the auction are cancelled.
B. Pass by Defender or Any Call by Declaring Side
If offender’s LHO calls before rectification or if the infraction is a pass by a defender or any call by the future declarer or dummy there is no further rectification.
C. Other Action by Defender
If offender’s LHO has not called subsequent to the infraction and the infraction is a bid, double or redouble by a defender the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply.
LAW 40 - PARTNERSHIP UNDERSTANDINGS
A. Players’ Systemic Agreements
1. (a) Partnership understandings as to the methods adopted by a
partnership may be reached explicitly in discussion or implicitly
through mutual experience or awareness of the players.
(b) Each partnership has a duty to make available its partnership understandings to opponents before commencing play against them. The Regulating Authority specifies the manner in which this shall be done.
2. Information conveyed to partner through such understandings
arise from the calls, plays and conditions of the current deal.
player is entitled to take into account the legal auction and,
to any exclusions in these laws, the cards he has seen. He is
to use information specified elsewhere in these laws to be
(See Law 73C.)
3. A player may make any call or play without prior
provided that such call or play is not based on an undisclosed
partnership understanding (see Law 40C1).
B. Special Partnership Understandings
1. (a) In its discretion the Regulating Authority may designate
partnership understandings as “special partnership understandings”.
special partnership understanding is one whose meaning, in the
of the Regulating Authority, may not be readily understood and
anticipated by a significant number of players in the tournament.
(b) Whether explicit or implicit an agreement between partners is
partnership understanding. A convention is included, unless the
Regulating Authority decides otherwise, among the agreements and
treatments that constitute special partnership understandings as is
case with any call that has an artificial meaning.
2. (a) The Regulating Authority is empowered without restriction to allow, disallow, or allow conditionally, any special partnership understanding. It may prescribe a System Card with or without supplementary sheets, for the prior listing of a partnership’s understandings, and regulate its use. The Regulating Authority may prescribe alerting procedures and/or other methods of disclosure of a partnership’s methods. It may vary the general requirement that the meaning of a call or play shall not alter by reference to the member of the partnership by whom it is made (such a regulation must not restrict style and judgement, only method).
Unless the Regulating Authority provides otherwise a player may not
consult his own system card after the auction period commences until
the end of play, except that players of the declaring side (only)
may consult their own system card during the Clarification Period.
(c) Unless the Regulating Authority provides otherwise a player may consult his opponent’s system card
(i) prior to the commencement of the auction
(ii) during the Clarification Period, and
(d) The Regulating Authority may restrict the use of psychic
The Regulating Authority may disallow prior agreement by a
partnership to vary its understandings during the auction or
following a question asked, a response to a question, or any
A side that is damaged as a consequence of its opponents’
provide disclosure of the meaning of a call or play as these
require, is entitled to rectification through the award of an
When a side is damaged by an opponent’s use of a special
partnership understanding that does not comply with the regulations
tournament the score shall be adjusted. A side in breach of
regulations may be subject to a procedural penalty.
(a) When explaining the significance of partner’s call or play in reply to opponent’s enquiry (see Law 20) a player shall disclose all special information conveyed to him through partnership agreement or partnership experience but he need not disclose inferences drawn from his knowledge and experience of matters generally known to bridge players.
The Director adjusts the scores if information not given in
explanation is crucial for opponent’s choice of action and
Deviation from System and Psychic Action
A player may deviate from his side’s announced
provided that his partner has no more reason to be aware of the
deviation than have the opponents. Repeated deviations lead to
understandings which then form part of the partnership’s methods
must be disclosed in accordance with the regulations governing
disclosure of system. If the Director judges there is
knowledge that has damaged the opponents he shall adjust the
may award a procedural penalty.
Other than the above no player has any obligation to
opponents that he has deviated from his announced methods.
(a) Unless permitted by the Regulating Authority a player is
entitled during the auction and play periods to any aids to his
calculation or technique.
(b) Repeated violations of requirements to disclose partnership understandings may be penalized.
LAW 41 - COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY
A. Face-down Opening Lead
After a bid, double or redouble has been followed by three passes
rotation, the defender on presumed declarer’s left makes the opening
lead face down*. The face-down lead may be withdrawn only upon
instruction of the Director after an irregularity (see Law 47E2);
withdrawn card must be returned to the defender’s hand.
B. Review of Auction and Questions
Before the opening lead is faced, the leader’s partner and the
declarer (but not the presumed dummy) each may require a review of
auction, or request explanation of an opponent’s call (see Law 20F2
20F3). Declarer** or either defender may, at his first turn to play
card, require a review of the auction; this right expires when he
a card. The defenders (subject to Law 16) and the declarer retain
right to request explanations throughout the play period, each at
own*** turn to play.
C. Opening Lead Faced
Following this Clarification Period, the opening lead is faced,
period begins irrevocably, and dummy’s hand is spread (but see Law
for a faced opening lead out of turn). After it is too late to have
previous calls restated (see B), declarer or either defender, at his
own*** turn to play, is entitled to be informed as to what the
is and whether, but not by whom, it was doubled or redoubled.
D. Dummy’s Hand
After the opening lead is faced, dummy spreads his hand in front
on the table, face up, sorted into suits, the cards in order of rank
with lowest ranking cards towards declarer, and in columns pointing
lengthwise towards declarer. Trumps are placed to dummy’s right.
Declarer plays both his hand and that of dummy.
* Regulating Authorities may specify that opening leads be made
** Declarer’s first turn to play is from dummy unless accepting
opening lead out of turn.
***Declarer may enquire at his turn to play from dummy or from
LAW 42 - DUMMY’S RIGHTS
A. Absolute Rights
Dummy is entitled to give information, in the Director’s
to fact or law.
He may keep count of tricks won and lost.
He plays the cards of the dummy as declarer’s agent as
Law 45F if dummy suggests a play).
B. Qualified Rights
Dummy may exercise other rights subject to the limitations stated in Law 43.
Dummy may ask declarer (but not a defender) when he has
follow suit to a trick whether he has a card of the suit led.
He may try to prevent any irregularity by declarer.
He may draw attention to any irregularity, but only after play of the hand is concluded.
LAW 43 - DUMMY’S LIMITATIONS
Except as Law 42 allows:
A. Limitations on Dummy
1. (a) Unless attention has been drawn to an irregularity by
player, dummy should not initiate a call for the Director during
(b) Dummy may not call attention to an irregularity during play.
(c) Dummy must not participate in the play, nor may he communicate anything about the play to declarer.
2. (a) Dummy may not exchange hands with declarer.
Dummy may not leave his seat to watch declarer’s play of the
(c) Dummy may not, on his own initiative, look at the face of a card in either defender’s hand.
If Violation Occurs
Dummy is liable to penalty under Law 90 for any violation of
limitations listed in A1 and A2.
If dummy, after his violation of the limitations listed in
(a) warns declarer not to lead from the wrong hand, either defender may choose the hand from which declarer shall lead.
is the first to ask declarer if a play from declarer’s hand
constitutes a revoke, declarer must substitute a correct card if
play was illegal, and the provisions of Law 64 then apply as if
revoke had been established.
3. If dummy after violation of the limitations listed in A2 is the first to draw attention to a defender’s irregularity, there is no rectification. Play continues as though no irregularity had occurred. At the end of play see Law 12B1.
LAW 44 - SEQUENCE AND PROCEDURE OF PLAY
A. Lead to a Trick
The player who leads to a trick may play any card in his hand
is subject to restriction after an irregularity committed by his
B. Subsequent Plays to a Trick
After the lead, each other player in turn plays a card, and the
cards so played constitute a trick. (For the method of playing cards
arranging tricks see Laws 45 and 65 respectively.)
C. Requirement to Follow Suit
In playing to a trick, each player must follow suit if possible.
obligation takes precedence over all other requirements of these
D. Inability to Follow Suit
If unable to follow suit, a player may play any card (unless he
subject to restriction after an irregularity committed by his side).
E. Tricks Containing Trumps
A trick containing a trump is won by the player who has
it the highest trump.
F. Tricks Not Containing Trumps
A trick that does not contain a trump is won by the player who
contributed to it the highest card of the suit led.
G. Lead to Tricks Subsequent to First Trick
The lead to the next trick is from the hand in which the last trick was won.
LAW 45 - CARD PLAYED
A. Play of Card from a Hand
Each player except dummy plays a card by detaching it from his
facing* it on the table immediately before him.
B. Play of Card from Dummy
Declarer plays a card from dummy by naming the card, after which
picks up the card and faces it on the table. In playing from dummy’s
hand declarer may, if necessary, pick up the desired card himself.
C. Compulsory Play of Card
A defender’s card held so that it is possible for his
partner to see
its face must be played to the current trick (if the defender
already made a legal play to the current trick, see Law 45E).
Declarer must play a card from his hand if it is
(a) held face up, touching or nearly touching the table; or
(b) maintained in such a position as to indicate that it has been played.
3. A card in the dummy must be played if it has been
touched by declarer except for the purpose either of arranging
cards, or of reaching a card above or below the card or cards
4.(a) A card must be played if a player names or otherwise
it as the card he proposes to play.
b) Until his partner has played a card a player may change an unintended designation if he does so without pause for thought. If an opponent has, in turn, played a card that was legal before the change in designation, that opponent may withdraw the card so played, return it to his hand, and substitute another (see Laws 47D and 16D1).
5. A penalty card, major or minor, may have to be played (see Law
D. Card Misplayed by Dummy
If dummy places in the played position a card that declarer did
name, the card must be withdrawn if attention is drawn to it before
side has played to the next trick, and a defender may withdraw and
return to his hand a card played after the error but before
was drawn to it; if declarer’s RHO changes his play, declarer may
withdraw a card he had subsequently played to that trick. (See Law
E. Fifth Card Played to Trick
A fifth card contributed to a trick by a defender becomes a
card, subject to Law 50, unless the Director deems that it was
which case Law 53 or 56 applies.
When declarer contributes a fifth card to a trick from his
or dummy, it is returned to the hand without further
unless the Director deems that it was led, in which case Law 55
F. Dummy Indicates Card
After dummy’s hand is faced, dummy may not touch or indicate any
(except for purpose of arrangement) without instruction from
If he does so the Director should be summoned forthwith and informed
the action. Play continues. At the end of the play the Director
award an adjusted score if he considers dummy suggested a play to
declarer and the defenders were damaged by the play suggested.
G. Turning the Trick
No player should turn his card face down until all four players
played to the trick.
* The opening lead is first made face down unless the Regulating Authority directs otherwise.
LAW 46 – INCOMPLETE OR ERRONEOUS CALL OF A CARD FROM DUMMY
A. Proper Form for Designating Dummy’s Card
When calling a card to be played from dummy declarer should
state both the suit and the rank of the desired card.
B. Incomplete or Erroneous Call
In case of an incomplete or erroneous call by declarer of the
card to be
played from dummy, the following restrictions apply (except when
declarer’s different intention is incontrovertible):
1. (a) If declarer in playing from dummy calls ‘high’, or words
of like meaning, he is deemed to have called the highest card.
b) If he directs dummy to ‘win’ the trick he is deemed to have called the lowest card that it is known will win the trick.
(c) If he calls ‘low’, or words of like meaning, he is deemed to have called the lowest card.
2. If declarer designates a suit but not a rank he is deemed to
called the lowest card of the suit indicated.
3. If declarer designates a rank but not a suit
a) In leading, declarer is deemed to have continued the suit in which dummy won the preceding trick provided there is a card of the designated rank in that suit.
b) In all other cases declarer must play a card from dummy of the designated rank if he can legally do so; but if there are two or more such cards that can be legally played declarer must designate which is intended.
(i) If declarer calls a card that is not in dummy the call is void and declarer may designate any legal card.
(ii) If declarer indicates a play without designating either a suit or a rank (as by saying ‘play anything’ or words of like meaning) either defender may designate the play from dummy.
LAW 47 - RETRACTION OF CARD PLAYED
A. In Course of Rectification
A card once played may be withdrawn when required by
following an irregularity (but a defender’s withdrawn card may
penalty card, see Law 49).
B. To Correct an Illegal Play
A played card may be withdrawn to correct an illegal play (for
defenders, except as this Law provides, see Law 49 - penalty card).
simultaneous play see Law 58.
C. To Change an Inadvertent Designation
A played card may be withdrawn and returned to the hand without
rectification after a change of designation permitted by Law
D. Following Opponent’s Change of Play
After an opponent’s change of play a played card may be withdrawn
returned to the hand without further rectification and another card
be substituted. (Laws 16D and 62C2 may apply.)
E. Change of Play Based on Misinformation
A lead out of turn (or play of a card) may be retracted
further rectification if the player was mistakenly informed by
opponent that it was his turn to lead or play. A lead or play
be accepted by his LHO in these circumstances.
(a) A player may retract the card he has played because of a
mistaken explanation of an opponent’s call or play and before a
corrected explanation, without further rectification, but only
card was subsequently played to that trick. An opening lead may
retracted after dummy has faced any card.
When it is too late to correct a play under (a) the Director
award an adjusted score.
A card may be withdrawn as Law 53C provides.
Except as this Law specifies, a card once played may not be withdrawn.
LAW 48 - EXPOSURE OF DECLARER’S CARDS
A. Declarer Exposes a Card
Declarer is not subject to restriction for exposing a card (but
45C2), and no card of declarer’s or dummy’s hand ever becomes a
card. Declarer is not required to play any card dropped
B. Declarer Faces Cards
When declarer faces his cards after an opening lead out of
When declarer faces his cards at any time other than
after an opening lead out of turn, he may be deemed to have made
or concession of tricks (unless he demonstrably did not intend
claim), and Law 68 then applies.
LAW 49 - EXPOSURE OF A DEFENDER’S CARDS
Except in the normal course of play or application of law (see for example Law 47E), when a defender’s card is in a position in which his partner could possibly see its face, or when a defender names a card as being in his hand, each such card becomes a penalty card (Law 50); but see the footnote to Law 68 when a defender has made a statement concerning an uncompleted trick currently in progress, and see Law 68B2 when partner objects to a defender’s concession.
LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD
A card prematurely exposed (but not led, see Law 57) by a
defender is a
penalty card unless the Director designates otherwise (see Law 49
Law 23 may apply).
A. Penalty Card Remains Exposed
A penalty card must be left face up on the table immediately
player to whom it belongs, until a rectification has been selected.
B. Major or Minor Penalty Card?
A single card below the rank of an honour exposed unintentionally (as in playing two cards to a trick, or in dropping a card accidentally) becomes a minor penalty card. Any card of honour rank, or any card exposed through deliberate play (for example in leading out of turn, or in revoking and then correcting), becomes a major penalty card; when one defender has two or more penalty cards, all such cards become major penalty cards.
C. Disposition of Minor Penalty Card
When a defender has a minor penalty card, he may not play any
of the same suit below the rank of an honour until he has first
the penalty card, but he is entitled to play an honour card instead.
Offender’s partner is not subject to lead restriction, but
gained through seeing the penalty card is unauthorized (see E
D. Disposition of Major Penalty Card
When a defender has a major penalty card, both the offender and his partner may be subject to restriction, the offender whenever he is to play, the partner whenever he is to lead.
1. (a) A major penalty card must be played at the first legal
opportunity, whether in leading, following suit, discarding or
If a defender has two or more penalty cards that can legally be
declarer designates which is to be played.
(b) The obligation to follow suit, or to comply with a lead or
restriction, takes precedence over the obligation to play a major
penalty card, but the penalty card must still be left face up on the
table and played at the next legal opportunity.
2. When a defender has the lead while his partner has a major
card, he may not lead until declarer has stated which of the options
below is selected (if the defender leads prematurely, he is subject
to rectification under Law 49). Declarer may choose
a) to prohibit* him from leading that suit for as long as he retains the lead (for two or more penalty cards, see Law 51); if declarer exercises either of these options, the card is no longer a penalty card and is picked up.
(b) not to require or prohibit a lead, in which case the defender may lead any card; the penalty card remains a penalty card**. If this option is selected Law 50D continues to apply for as long as the penalty card remains.
Information from a Penalty Card
Knowledge of the requirements for playing a penalty card is
authorized information for all players.
Other information derived from sight of a penalty card is
unauthorized for the partner of the player who has the penalty
authorized for declarer).
If the Director judges that the exposed card conveyed such
information as to damage the non-offending side he shall award
* If the player is unable to lead as required see Law 59.
**If the partner of the defender with the penalty card retains the lead, and the penalty card has not yet been played, then all the requirements and options of Law 50D2 apply again at the following trick.
LAW 51 - TWO OR MORE PENALTY CARDS
A. Offender to Play
If it is a defender’s turn to play and that defender has two or
penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates which
to be played at that turn.
B. Offender’s Partner to Lead
1. (a) When a defender has two or more penalty cards in one suit,
declarer requires* the defender’s partner to lead that suit, the
of that suit are no longer penalty cards and are picked up; the
defender may make any legal play to the trick.
(b) When a defender has two or more penalty cards in one suit,
declarer prohibits* the defender’s partner from leading that suit,
defender picks up every penalty card in that suit and may make any
legal play to the trick. The prohibition continues until the player
loses the lead.
2. (a) When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit
Law 50D2(a)) and his partner is to lead, declarer may require* the
defender’s partner to lead any suit in which the defender has a
penalty card (but B1(a) preceding then applies).
(b) When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit and
partner is to lead, declarer may prohibit* the defender’s partner
leading one or more of such suits; the defender then picks up every
penalty card in every suit prohibited by declarer and makes any
play to the trick. The prohibition continues until the player loses
* If the player is unable to lead as required see Law 59.
LAW 52 - FAILURE TO LEAD OR PLAY A PENALTY CARD
A. Defender Fails to Play Penalty Card
When a defender fails to lead or play a penalty card as required
50 or Law 51, he may not, on his own initiative, withdraw any other
he has played.
B. Defender Plays Another Card
1. (a) If a defender has led or played another card when required by law to play a penalty card, declarer may accept such lead or play.
(b) Declarer must accept such lead or play if he has thereafter played from his own hand or dummy.
If the played card is accepted under either (a) or (b) any
unplayed penalty card remains a penalty card.
2. If declarer does not accept the card illegally played or led
defender must substitute the penalty card for the card illegally
or led. Every card illegally led or played by the defender in the
course of committing the irregularity becomes a major penalty card.
LAW 53 - LEAD OUT OF TURN ACCEPTED
A. Lead Out of Turn Treated as Correct Lead
Any lead faced out of turn may be treated as a correct lead (but
47E1). It becomes a correct lead if declarer or either defender, as
case may be, accepts it by making a statement to that effect, or if
play is made from the hand next in rotation to the irregular lead
see C). If there is no such acceptance or play, the Director will
require that the lead be made from the correct hand (and see Law
B. Wrong Defender Plays Card to Declarer’s Irregular Lead
If the defender at the right of the hand from which declarer’s
of turn was made plays to the irregular lead (but see C), the lead
stands and Law 57 applies.
C. Proper Lead Made Subsequent to Irregular Lead
Subject to Law 53A, if it was properly the turn to lead of an
of the player who led out of turn, that opponent may make his proper
lead to the trick of the infraction without his card being deemed
to the irregular lead. When this occurs, the proper lead stands and
cards played in error to this trick may be withdrawn. Law 16D
but there is no further rectification.
LAW 54 - FACED OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN
When an opening lead out of turn is faced and offender’s partner
face down, the director requires the face down lead to be retracted.
A. Declarer Spreads His Hand
After a faced opening lead out of turn, declarer may spread his
becomes dummy. If declarer begins to spread his hand, and in doing
exposes one or more cards, he must spread his entire hand. Dummy
B. Declarer Accepts Lead
When a defender faces the opening lead out of turn declarer may
the irregular lead as provided in Law 53, and dummy is spread in
accordance with Law 41.
The second card to the trick is played from declarer’s hand.
If declarer plays the second card to the trick from dummy,
card may not be withdrawn except to correct a revoke.
C. Declarer Must Accept Lead
If declarer could have seen any of dummy’s cards (except cards
dummy may have exposed during the auction and that were subject to
24), he must accept the lead.
D. Declarer Refuses Opening Lead
Declarer may require a defender to retract his faced opening lead
turn. The withdrawn card becomes a major penalty card and Law 50D
E. Opening Lead by Wrong Side
If a player of the declaring side attempts to make an opening lead Law 24 applies.
LAW 55 - DECLARER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN
A. Declarer’s Lead Accepted
If declarer has led out of turn from his or dummy’s hand, either
defender may accept the lead as provided in Law 53, or require its
retraction (after misinformation, see Law 47E1). If the defenders
differently the option expressed by the player next in turn shall prevail.
B. Declarer Required to Retract Lead
If declarer has led from his or dummy’s hand when it was a
turn to lead, and if either defender requires him to retract
declarer restores the card led in error to the proper hand. No
If declarer has led from the wrong hand when it was his turn
from his hand or dummy’s, and if either defender requires him to
the lead, he withdraws the card led in error. He must lead from
C. Declarer Might Obtain Information
When declarer adopts a line of play that could have been based on
information obtained through the infraction, the Director may award
LAW 56 - DEFENDER’S LEAD OUT OF TURN
See Law 54D.
LAW 57 - PREMATURE LEAD OR PLAY
A. Premature Play or Lead to Next Trick
When a defender leads to the next trick before his partner has
the current trick, or plays out of turn before his partner has
the card so led or played becomes a major penalty card, and declarer
selects one of the following options. He may:
require offender’s partner to play the highest card he holds
suit led, or
require offender’s partner to play the lowest card he holds
suit led, or
forbid offender’s partner to play a card of another suit
B. Offender’s Partner Cannot Comply with Rectification
When offender’s partner is unable to comply with the
selected by declarer he may play any card, as provided in Law 59.
C. Declarer or Dummy Has Played
A defender is not subject to rectification for playing
partner if declarer has played from both hands, nor if dummy has
a card or has illegally suggested that it be played. A singleton
dummy, or one of cards adjacent in rank of the same suit, is not
considered to be played until declarer has instructed (or
A premature play (not a lead) by declarer from either hand
played card and may not be withdrawn.
* as by a gesture or nod
LAW 58 - SIMULTANEOUS LEADS OR PLAYS
A. Simultaneous Plays by Two Players
A lead or play made simultaneously with another player’s legal
play is deemed to be subsequent to it.
B. Simultaneous Cards from One Hand
If a player leads or plays two or more cards simultaneously:
If only one card is visible, that card is played; all other
picked up and there is no further rectification (see Law 47F).
If more than one card is visible, the player designates the
proposes to play; when he is a defender, each other card exposed
a penalty card (see Law 50).
After a player withdraws a visible card, an opponent who
played to that card may withdraw his play and substitute another
further rectification (but see Law 16D).
If the simultaneous play remains undiscovered until both sides have played to the next trick, Law 67 applies.
LAW 59 - INABILITY TO LEAD OR PLAY AS REQUIRED
A player may play any otherwise legal card if he is unable to
play as required to comply with a rectification, whether because he
holds no card of the required suit, or because he has only cards of
suit he is prohibited from leading, or because he is obliged to
LAW 60 - PLAY AFTER AN ILLEGAL PLAY
A. Play of Card after Irregularity
A play by a member of the non-offending side after his RHO
has led or
played out of turn or prematurely, and before rectification has
assessed, forfeits the right to rectification of that offence.
Once the right to rectification has been forfeited, the
is treated as though it were in turn (except when Law 53C
If the offending side has a previous obligation to play a
card, or to comply with a lead or play restriction, the
remains at future turns.
B. Defender Plays before Required Lead by Declarer
When a defender plays a card after declarer has been required to
his lead out of turn from either hand, but before declarer has led
the correct hand, the defender’s card becomes a major penalty card
C. Play by Offending Side before Assessment of Rectification
A play by a member of the offending side before rectification has
assessed does not affect the rights of the opponents, and may itself
be subject to rectification.
LAW 61 - FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUIT - INQUIRIES CONCERNING A REVOKE
A. Definition of Revoke
Failure to follow suit in accordance with Law 44 or failure to
play, when able, a card or suit required by law or specified by an
opponent when exercising an option in rectification of an
constitutes a revoke. (When unable to comply see Law 59.)
B. Right to Inquire about a Possible Revoke
Declarer may ask a defender who has failed to follow suit
has a card of the suit led. (a) Dummy may ask declarer (but see Law 43B2(b)).
3. Defenders may ask declarer and, unless prohibited by the
Authority, may ask one another (at the risk of creating
(b) Dummy may not ask a defender and Law 16B may apply.
(a) Dummy may ask declarer (but see Law 43B2(b)).
3. Defenders may ask declarer and, unless prohibited by the Regulating Authority, may ask one another (at the risk of creating unauthorized information).
LAW 62 - CORRECTION OF A REVOKE
A. Revoke Must Be Corrected
A player must correct his revoke if he becomes aware of the
before it becomes established.
B. Correcting a Revoke
To correct a revoke the offender withdraws the card he played and
substitutes a legal card.
A card so withdrawn becomes a major penalty card (Law 50) if
played from a defender’s unfaced hand.
The card may be replaced without further rectification if it
played from declarer’s (subject to Law 43B2(b)) or dummy’s hand,
it was a defender’s faced card.
C. Subsequent Cards Played
Each member of the non-offending side may withdraw and
return to his
hand any card he may have played after the revoke but before
was drawn to it (see Law 16D).
After a non-offender so withdraws a card, the player of the
side next in rotation may withdraw his played card, which
penalty card if the player is a defender, and see Law 16D.
A claim of a revoke does not automatically warrant
quitted tricks (see Law 66C).
D. Revoke on Trick Twelve
On the twelfth trick, a revoke, even if established, must be
corrected if discovered before all four hands have been returned
If a revoke by a defender occurs on the twelfth trick and before it was the turn of his partner to play to the trick, when offender’s partner has cards of two suits he may not choose the play that could possibly have been suggested by seeing the revoke card.
LAW 63 - ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE
A. Revoke Becomes Established
A revoke becomes established:
when the offender or his partner leads or plays to the
trick (any such play, legal or illegal, establishes the revoke).
when the offender or his partner names or otherwise
designates a card
to be played to the following trick.
when a member of the offending side makes or agrees to a
concession of tricks orally or by facing his hand or in any
B. Revoke May Not Be Corrected
Once a revoke is established, it may no longer be corrected
provided in Law 62D for a revoke on the twelfth trick), and the
which the revoke occurred stands as played.
LAW 64 - PROCEDURE AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE
A. Rectification following a Revoke
When a revoke is established:
and the trick on which the revoke occurred was won by the
player*, at the end of the play the trick on which the revoke
is transferred to the non-offending side together with one of
subsequent tricks won by the offending side.
and the trick on which the revoke occurred was not won by
offending player* then, if the offending side won that or any
trick, after play ends one trick is transferred to the
B. No Rectification
There is no rectification as in A following an established
if the offending side did not win either the revoke trick or
any subsequent trick.
if it is a subsequent revoke in the same suit by the same
64C may apply.
if the revoke was made in failing to play any card faced on
or belonging to a hand faced on the table, including a card from
if attention was first drawn to the revoke after a member of
the non-offending side has made a call on the subsequent deal.
if attention was first drawn to the revoke after the round
if it is a revoke on the twelfth trick.
when both sides have revoked on the same board.
C. Director Responsible for Equity
When, after any established revoke, including those not subject
rectification, the Director deems that the non-offending side is
insufficiently compensated by this Law for the damage caused, he
assign an adjusted score.
* a trick won in dummy is not won by declarer for the purposes of this Law.
LAW 65 - ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS
A. Completed Trick
When four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns
card face down near him on the table.
B. Keeping Track of the Ownership of Tricks
If the player’s side has won the trick, the card is pointed
lengthwise toward his partner.
If the opponents have won the trick, the card is pointed
toward the opponents.
Declarer may require that a card pointed incorrectly is
above. Dummy or either defender may draw attention to a card
incorrectly, but for these players the right expires when a lead
to the following trick. If done later Law 16B may apply.
Each player arranges his own cards in an orderly overlapping row
sequence played, so as to permit review of the play after its
completion, if necessary to determine the number of tricks won by
side or the order in which the cards were played.
D. Agreement on Results of Play
A player should not disturb the order of his played cards until agreement has been reached on the number of tricks won. A player who fails to comply with the provisions of this Law jeopardises his right to claim ownership of doubtful tricks or to claim (or deny) a revoke.
LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS
A. Current Trick
So long as his side has not led or played to the next trick, declarer or either defender may, until he has turned his own card face down on the table, require that all cards just played to the trick be faced.
B. Own Last Card
Until a card is led to the next trick, declarer or either
inspect, but not expose, his own last card played.
C. Quitted Tricks
Thereafter, until play ceases, the cards of quitted tricks may
inspected (except at the Director’s specific instruction; for
if necessary to verify a claim of a revoke).
D. After the Conclusion of Play
After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected
tosettle a claim of a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost;
no player should handle cards other than his own. If, after such a
has been made, a player mixes his cards in such a manner that the
Director can no longer ascertain the facts, the Director shall rule
favour of the other side.
LAW 67 - DEFECTIVE TRICK
A. Before Both Sides Play to Next Trick
When a player has omitted to play to a trick, or has played too
cards to a trick, the error must be rectified if attention is drawn
the irregularity before a player on each side has played to the
To rectify omission to play to a trick, the offender
supplies a card
he can legally play.
To rectify the play of too many cards to a trick, Law 45E
Played to a Trick) or Law 58B (Simultaneous Cards from One Hand)
B. After Both Sides Play to Next Trick
After both sides have played to the following trick, when
drawn to a defective trick or when the Director determines that
had been a defective trick (from the fact that one player has too
too many cards in his hand, and a correspondingly incorrect number
played cards), the Director establishes which trick was defective.
rectify the number of cards, the Director should proceed as follows.
1. When the offender has failed to play a card to the defective
the Director shall require him forthwith to expose a card face-up in
front of him and then place it appropriately among his played cards
(this card does not affect ownership of the trick); if
a) the offender has a card of the suit led to the defective trick, he must choose such a card to place among his played cards. He is deemed to have revoked on the defective trick and is subject to the loss of one trick transferred in accordance with Law 64A2.
the offender has no card of the suit led to the defective
he chooses any card to place among his played cards. He is
have revoked on the defective trick and is subject to the loss
trick transferred in accordance with Law 64A2.
2. (a) When the offender has played more than one card to the
trick, the Director inspects the played cards and requires the
to restore to his hand all extra cards*, leaving among the played
the one faced in playing to the defective trick (if the Director is
unable to determine which card was faced, the offender leaves the
highest ranking of the cards that he could legally have played to
trick). Ownership of the defective trick does not change.
(b) A restored card is deemed to have belonged continuously to
offender’s hand, and a failure to have played it to an earlier trick
constitute a revoke.
* The Director should avoid, when possible, exposing a defender’s played cards, but if an extra card to be restored to a defender’s hand has been exposed, it becomes a penalty card (see Law 50).
LAW 68 - CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS
For a statement or action to constitute a claim or concession of
under these Laws, it must refer to tricks other than one currently
progress*. If it does refer to subsequent tricks:
A. Claim Defined
Any statement to the effect that a contestant will win a specific
of tricks is a claim of those tricks. A contestant also claims when
suggests that play be curtailed, or when he shows his cards (unless
demonstrably did not intend to claim - for example, if declarer
his cards after an opening lead out of turn Law 54, not this Law,
B. Concession Defined
Any statement to the effect that a contestant will lose a
number of tricks is a concession of those tricks; a claim of
of tricks is a concession of the remainder, if any. A player
all the remaining tricks when he abandons his hand.
Regardless of 1 preceding, if a defender attempts to concede
more tricks and his partner immediately objects, no concession
occurred. Unauthorized information may exist, so the Director
summoned immediately. Play continues. Any card that has been
a defender in these circumstances is not a penalty card but Law
applies to information arising from its exposure and the
not be used by the partner of the defender who has exposed it.
C. Clarification Required for Claim
A claim should be accompanied at once by a clear statement as to the order in which cards will be played, of the line of play or defence through which the claimer proposes to win the tricks claimed.
D. Play Ceases
After any claim or concession, play ceases (but see Law 70D3). If
claim or concession is agreed, Law 69 applies; if it is doubted by
player (dummy included), the Director must be summoned immediately
Law 70 applies. No action may be taken pending the Director’s
arrival. * If the statement or action pertains only to the winning or
an uncompleted trick currently in progress, play proceeds regularly;
cards exposed or revealed by a defender do not become penalty cards,
Law 16, Unauthorized Information, may apply, and see Law 57A,
LAW 69 - AGREED CLAIM OR CONCESSION
A. When Agreement is Established
Agreement is established when a contestant assents to an
claim or concession, and raises no objection to it before his side
a call on a subsequent board or before the round ends, whichever
occurs first. The board is scored as though the tricks claimed or
been won or lost in play.
B. Director’s Decision
Agreement with a claim or concession (see A) may be withdrawn within the Correction Period established under Law 79C:
if a player agreed to the loss of a trick his side had, in
if a player has agreed to the loss of a trick that his side
likely have won had the play continued.
The board is rescored with such trick awarded to his side.
LAW 70 - CONTESTED CLAIM OR CONCESSION
A. General Objective
In ruling on a contested claim or concession, the Director
the result of the board as equitably as possible to both sides, but
anydoubtful point as to a claim shall be resolved against the claimer.
Director proceeds as follows.
B. Clarification Statement Repeated
The Director requires claimer to repeat the clarification
he made at the time of his claim.
Next, the Director hears the opponents’ objections to the
the Director’s considerations are not limited only to the
The Director may require players to put their remaining
cards face up
on the table.
C. There Is an Outstanding Trump
When a trump remains in one of the opponents’ hands, the Director
award a trick or tricks to the opponents if:
claimer made no statement about that trump, and
it is at all likely that claimer at the time of his claim
that a trump remained in an opponent’s hand, and
a trick could be lost to that trump by any normal* play.
D. Director’s Considerations
The Director shall not accept from claimer any successful
play not embraced in the original clarification statement if
there is an
alternative normal* line of play that would be less successful.
The Director does not accept any part of a defender’s claim
depends on his partner’s selecting a particular play from among
alternative normal* plays.
In accordance with Law 68D play should have ceased, but if
any play has occurred after the claim this may provide evidence to be
of the clarification of the claim. The Director may accept it as
evidence of the players’ probable plays subsequent to the claim
of the accuracy of the claim.
E. Unstated Line of Play
The Director shall not accept from claimer any unstated line
the success of which depends upon finding one opponent rather
other with a particular card, unless an opponent failed to
follow to the
suit of that card before the claim was made, or would
to follow to that suit on any normal* line of play, or unless
adopt that line of play would be irrational.
The Regulating Authority may specify an order (e.g. “from
down”) in which the Director shall deem a suit played if this
clarified in the statement of claim (but always subject to any
requirement of this Law).
* For the purposes of Laws 70 and 71, “normal” includes play that
be careless or inferior for the class of player involved.
LAW 71 - CONCESSION CANCELLED
A concession must stand, once made, except that within the
Period established under Law 79C the Director shall cancel a
if a player conceded a trick his side had, in fact, won; or
if a player has conceded a trick that could not be lost by
normal* play of the remaining cards.
The board is rescored with such trick awarded to his side.
* For the purposes of Laws 70 and 71, “normal” includes play that would be careless or inferior for the class of player involved.
LAW 72 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES
A. Observance of Laws
Duplicate bridge tournaments should be played in strict
accordance with the Laws. The chief object is to obtain a higher
score than other contestants whilst complying with the lawful
procedures and ethical standards set out in these laws.
B. Infraction of Law
A player must not infringe a law intentionally, even if
is a prescribed rectification he is willing to accept.
There is no obligation to draw attention to an infraction of
law committed by one’s own side (but see Law 20F for a mistaken
explanation and see Laws 62A and 79A2).
A player may not attempt to conceal an infraction, as by
committing a second revoke, concealing a card involved in a
revoke or mixing the cards prematurely.
LAW 73 - COMMUNICATION
A. Appropriate Communication between Partners
Communication between partners during the auction and play
shall be effected only by means of calls and plays.
Calls and plays should be made without undue emphasis,
mannerism or inflection, and without undue hesitation or haste.
But Regulating Authorities may require mandatory pauses, as on
the first round of the auction, or after a skip-bid warning, or
on the first trick.
B. Inappropriate Communication between Partners
Partners shall not communicate by means such as the manner
which calls or plays are made, extraneous remarks or gestures,
questions asked or not asked of the opponents or alerts and
explanations given or not given to them
The gravest possible offence is for a partnership to
information through prearranged methods of communication other
than those sanctioned by these Laws.
C. Player Receives Unauthorized Information from Partner
When a player has available to him unauthorized information from
his partner, such as from a remark, question, explanation,
gesture, mannerism, undue emphasis, inflection, haste or
hesitation, an unexpected* alert or failure to alert, he must
carefully avoid taking any advantage from that unauthorized
D. Variations in Tempo or Manner
It is desirable, though not always required, for players to
maintain steady tempo and unvarying manner. However, players
should be particularly careful when variations may work to the
benefit of their side. Otherwise, unintentionally to vary the
tempo or manner in which a call or play is made is not in itself
an infraction. Inferences from such variation may appropriately
be drawn only by an opponent, and at his own risk.
A player may not attempt to mislead an opponent by means of
remark or gesture, by the haste or hesitancy of a call or play
(as in hesitating before playing a singleton), the manner in
which a call or play is made or by any purposeful deviation from
A player may appropriately attempt to deceive an opponent through
or play (so long as the deception is not protected by concealed
partnership understanding or experience).
F. Violation of Proprieties
When a violation of the Proprieties described in this law results
damage to an innocent opponent, if the Director determines that an
innocent player has drawn a false inference from a remark, manner,
tempo, or the like, of an opponent who has no demonstrable bridge reason for the action, and who could have known, at the time of the action, that the action could work to his benefit, the Director shall award an adjusted score (see Law 12C).
* i.e. unexpected in relation to the basis of his action.
LAW 74 - CONDUCT AND ETIQUETTE
A. Proper Attitude
A player should maintain a courteous
attitude at all times.
A player should carefully avoid any remark
or action that
might cause annoyance or embarrassment to another player or
might interfere with the enjoyment of the game.
Every player should follow uniform and
correct procedure in
calling and playing.
As a matter of courtesy a player should refrain
paying insufficient attention to the game.
making gratuitous comments during the
auction and play.
detaching a card before it is his turn to
prolonging play unnecessarily (as in playing
on although he
knows that all the tricks are surely his) for the purpose of
disconcerting an opponent.
summoning and addressing the Director in a
discourteous to him or to other contestants.
C. Violations of Procedure
The following are examples of violations of
using different designations for the same
indicating approval or disapproval of a call
indicating the expectation or intention of
winning or losing
a trick that has not been completed.
commenting or acting during the auction or
play so as to call
attention to a significant occurrence, or to the number of
tricks still required for success.
looking intently at any other player during
the auction and
play, or at another player’s hand as for the purpose of seeing
his cards or of observing the place from which he draws a card
(but it is appropriate to act on information acquired by unintentionally seeing an opponent’s card*).
showing an obvious lack of further interest
in a deal (as by
folding one’s cards).
varying the normal tempo of bidding or play
for the purpose
of disconcerting an opponent.
leaving the table needlessly before the
round is called.
* See Law 73D2 when a player may have shown his cards intentionally.
LAW 75 - MISTAKEN EXPLANATION OR MISTAKEN CALL
After a misleading explanation has been given to opponents
responsibilities of the players (and the Director) are as
the consequences of this following example:
North has opened 1NT and South, who holds a weak hand with long
diamonds, has bid 2♦, intending to sign off; North explains,
however, in answer to West’s inquiry, that South’s bid is strong and
asking for major suits.
A. Mistake Causing Unauthorized Information
Whether or not North’s explanation is a correct statement of
agreement, South, having heard North’s explanation, knows that his
2♦ bid has been misinterpreted. This knowledge is “unauthorised
information” (see Law 16A), so South must be careful to avoid taking
advantage from that unauthorized information (see Law 73C). (If he
the Director shall award an adjusted score.) For instance, if North
rebids two no trump, South has the unauthorised information that
bid merely denies a four-card holding in either major suit; but
responsibility is to act as though North had made a strong game try
opposite a weak response, showing maximum values.
B. Mistaken Explanation
The actual partnership agreement is that 2♦ is a natural signoff;
mistake was in North’s explanation. This explanation is an
Law, since East-West are entitled to an accurate description of the
North-South agreement (when this infraction results in damage to
East-West, the Director shall award an adjusted score). If North
subsequently becomes aware of his mistake, he must immediately
the Director. South must do nothing to correct the mistaken
while the auction continues; after the final pass, South, if he is
declarer or dummy, should call the Director and must volunteer a
correction of the explanation. If South becomes a defender, he calls
Director and corrects the explanation when play ends.
C. Mistaken Call
The partnership agreement is as explained — 2♦ is strong and artificial; the mistake was in South’s call. Here there is no infraction of Law, since East-West did receive an accurate description of the North-South agreement; they have no claim to an accurate description of the North-South hands. (Regardless of damage, the Director shall allow the result to stand; but the Director is to presume Mistaken Explanation, rather than Mistaken Call, in the absence of evidence to the contrary.) South must not correct North’s explanation (or notify the Director) immediately, and he has no responsibility to do so subsequently.
LAW 76 - SPECTATORS
Spectators in the playing area* are subject to the control
Director under the regulations for the tournament.
Regulating Authorities and Tournament Organizers who grant
for electronic transmission of play as it occurs may establish
regulation the terms by which such transmissions are viewed and
prescribe acceptable conduct for viewers. (A viewer must not
with a player in the course of a session in which the latter is
B. At the Table
A spectator may not look at the hand of more than one player
allowed by regulation.
A spectator must not show any reaction to the bidding or
play when a
deal is in progress.
During a round a spectator must refrain from mannerisms or
of any kind and must have no conversation with a player.
A spectator must not disturb a player.
A spectator at the table shall not draw attention to any
A spectator may speak as to fact or law within the playing
when requested to do so by the Director.
Regulating Authorities and Tournament Organizers may specify
deal with irregularities caused by spectators.
Any person in the playing area*, other than a player or a
official, has the status of a spectator unless the Director
* The playing area includes all parts of the accommodation where a player may be present during a session in which he is participating. It may be further defined by regulation.
LAW 77 – DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING TABLE
Bid and made by declarer's side
|Contract||♣||♦||♥||♠||NT (first)||NT (rest)|
A trick score of 100 points or more, made on one board, is GAME.
A trick score of less than 100 points is a PART SCORE.
Bid and Made
|Small Slam (12 tricks)||500||750|
|Grand Slam (13 tricks)||1000||1500|
(tricks made in excess of contract)
|Undoubled||Trick value||Trick value|
PREMIUMS FOR GAME, PART SCORE, FULFILLING CONTRACT
UNDER TRICK PENALTIES
Scored by declarer’s opponents if the contract is not fulfilled
|UNDER TRICKS||Not Vulnerable||Vulnerable|
|First Under trick|
|Additional under tricks|
|Bonus for fourth & subsequent under tricks|
If all four players pass (see Law 22) each side enters a zero score.
LAW 78 - METHODS OF SCORING AND CONDITIONS OF CONTEST
A. Matchpoint Scoring
In matchpoint scoring each contestant is awarded, for scores made
different contestants who have played the same board and whose
are compared with his, two scoring units (matchpoints or half
matchpoints) for each score inferior to his, one scoring unit for
score equal to his, and zero scoring units for each score superior
B. International Matchpoint Scoring
In international matchpoint scoring, on each board the total point difference between the two scores compared is converted into IMPs according to the following scale.
|Difference in points||IMPS||Difference in points||IMPS||Difference in points||IMPS|
|20 - 40||1||370–420||9||1500–1740||17|
|320–360||8||1300–1490||16||4000 & upward||24|
C. Total Point Scoring
In total point scoring, the net total point score of all boards
is the score for each contestant.
D. Conditions of Contest
If approved by the Regulating Authority other scoring methods (for example conversions to Victory Points) may be adopted. The Tournament Organizer should publish Conditions of Contest in advance of a tournament or contest. These should detail conditions of entry, methods of scoring, determination of winners, breaking of ties, and the like. The Conditions must not conflict with law or regulation and shall incorporate any information specified by the Regulating Authority. They should be available to contestants.
LAW 79 - TRICKS WON
A. Agreement on Tricks Won
The number of tricks won shall be agreed upon before all
have been returned to the board.
A player must not knowingly accept either the score for a
his side did not win or the concession of a trick that his
could not lose.
B. Disagreement on Tricks Won
If a subsequent disagreement arises, the Director must be called,
The Director determines whether there has been a claim or
and, if so, applies Law 69.
If 1 does not apply the Director rules what score is to be
If the Director is not called before the round ends he rules in
accordance with C below or Law 87, as applicable, but there
shall be no
obligation to increase a side’s score.
C. Error in Score
An error in computing or tabulating the agreed-upon score,
made by a player or scorer, may be corrected until the
expiration of the
period specified by the Tournament Organizer. Unless the
Organizer specifies a later* time, this Correction Period
minutes after the official score has been made available for
Regulations may provide for circumstances in which a scoring
may be corrected after expiry of the Correction Period if the
and the Tournament Organizer are both satisfied beyond
that the record is wrong.
* An earlier time may be specified when required by the special nature of a contest.
LAW 80 - REGULATION AND ORGANIZATION
A. The Regulating Authority
1. The Regulating Authority under these laws is
(a) for its own world tournaments and events the World Bridge Federation.
(b) the respective Zonal Authority for tournaments and events held under its auspices.
for any other tournament or event the National Bridge
Organization in whose territory the tournament takes place.
The Regulating Authority has the responsibilities and powers
specified in these laws.
The Regulating Authority may delegate its powers (retaining
responsibility for their exercise) or it may assign them (in
it has no further responsibility for their exercise).
B. Tournament Organizer
The Regulating Authority may recognize an entity, designated
‘Tournament Organizer’, which subject to the requirements of the
Regulating Authority and these laws is responsible for arranging
preparing a tournament or event. The Tournament Organizer’s
duties may be delegated but the responsibility for their
retained. The Regulating Authority and the Tournament Organizer
the same body.
The Tournament Organizer’s powers and duties include:
appointment of the Director. If there is no appointed
the players should designate a person to perform his functions.
to make advance arrangements for the tournament,
playing quarters, equipment and all other logistical
(c) to establish the date and time of each session.
to establish the conditions of entry.
(e) to establish the conditions for bidding and play in accordance with these laws, together with any special conditions (as, for example, play with screens – provisions for rectification of actions not transmitted across the screen may be varied).
(f) to announce regulations supplementary to, but not in conflict with, these Laws.
(g) (i) to arrange* for the appointment of any assistants required for the Director.
to appoint other staff and prescribe their duties and
(h) to arrange* for entries to be accepted and listed.
(i) to establish suitable conditions of play and announce them to the contestants.
(j) to arrange* for scores to be collected, results tabulated, and an official record made of them.
to make suitable arrangements for the conduct of appeals
(l) any other powers and duties conferred in these laws.
* It is normal in some jurisdictions for the Director to assume responsibility for some or all of the tasks that the Tournament Organizer is here required to arrange.
A. Official Status
The Director is the official representative of the Tournament Organizer.
B. Restrictions and Responsibilities
The Director is responsible for the on-site technical
the tournament. He has powers to remedy any omissions of the
The Director applies, and is bound by, these Laws and
regulations announced under authority given in these Laws.
C. Director’s Duties and Powers
The Director (not the players) has the responsibility for
irregularities and redressing damage. The Director’s duties and
normally include also the following:
to maintain discipline and to ensure the orderly progress of
to administer and interpret these Laws and to advise the
their rights and responsibilities thereunder.
to rectify an error or irregularity of which he becomes
aware in any
manner, within the correction period established in accordance
to assess rectification when applicable and to exercise the
given him in Laws 90 and 91.
to waive rectification for cause, in his discretion, upon
of the non-offending side.
to adjust disputes.
to refer any matter to an appropriate committee.
to report results for the official record if the Tournament
requires it and to deal with any other matters delegated to him
D. Delegation of Duties
The Director may delegate any of his duties to assistants, but he is not thereby relieved of responsibility for their correct performance.
LAW 82 - RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS OF PROCEDURE
A. Director’s Duty
It is the responsibility of the Director to rectify errors of
and to maintain the progress of the game in a manner that is not
contrary to these Laws.
B. Rectification of Error
To rectify an error in procedure the Director may:
award an adjusted score as permitted by these Laws.
require, postpone, or cancel the play of a board.
exercise any other power given to him in these Laws.
C. Director’s Error
If a ruling has been given that the Director subsequently
be incorrect, and if no rectification will allow the board to be
normally, he shall award an adjusted score, treating both sides as
non-offending for that purpose.
LAW 83 - NOTIFICATION OF THE RIGHT TO APPEAL
If the Director believes that a review of his decision on a point
fact or exercise of his discretionary power could well be in order,
shall advise a contestant of his right to appeal or may refer the
to an appropriate committee.
LAW 84 - RULINGS ON AGREED FACTS
When the Director is called to rule on a point of law or
the facts are agreed, he rules as follows:
A. No Rectification
If no rectification is prescribed by law, and there is no
him to exercise his discretionary powers, he directs the players to
proceed with the auction or play.
B. Law Provides Rectification
If the case is clearly covered by a Law that prescribes the
rectification for the irregularity, he determines that rectification
ensures that it is implemented.
C. Player’s Option
If a Law gives a player a choice of rectification the Director
the options and sees that the choice is made and implemented.
D. Director’s Option
The Director rules any doubtful point in favour of the
side. He seeks to restore equity. If in his judgement it is probable
that a non-offending side has been damaged by an
irregularity for which
these laws provide no rectification he adjusts the score (see Law
LAW 85 - RULINGS ON DISPUTED FACTS
When the Director is called upon to rule on a point of law or
in which the facts are not agreed upon, he proceeds as follows:
A. Director’s Assessment
In determining the facts the Director shall base his view on
balance of probabilities, which is to say in accordance with the
of the evidence he is able to collect.
If the Director is then satisfied that he has ascertained
he rules as in Law 84.
B. Facts Not Determined
If the Director is unable to determine the facts to his satisfaction, he makes a ruling that will permit play to continue.
LAW 86 - IN TEAM PLAY OR SIMILAR
A. Average Score at IMP Play
When the Director chooses to award an artificial adjusted score
average plus or average minus in IMP play, that score is plus 3 IMPs
minus 3 IMPs respectively. Subject to approval by the Regulating
Authority, this may be varied by the Tournament Organizer.
B. Non-balancing Adjustments, Knockout Play
When the Director awards non-balancing adjusted scores (see Law
knockout play, each contestant’s score on the board is calculated
separately. The average of the two scores is then assigned to each
C. Substitute Board
The Director shall not exercise his Law 6 authority to order one
redealt when the final result of a match without that board could be
known to a contestant. Instead, he awards an adjusted score.
D. Result Obtained at Other Table
In team play when the Director awards an adjusted score
award that ensues from application of Law 6D2), and a result has
obtained* between the same contestants at another table, the
may assign an adjusted score in IMPs or total points (and should do
when that result appears favourable to the non-offending side).
* if commenced between the same two contestants at another table
board may be completed
LAW 87 - FOULED BOARD
A board is considered to be ‘fouled’ if the Director determines
card (or more than one) was displaced in the board, or if he
that the dealer or vulnerability differed between copies of the same
board, and the contestants who should have had a score comparison
not play the board in identical form for such reason.
In scoring a fouled board the Director determines as closely as
which scores were obtained on the board in its correct form and
the changed form(s). He divides the scores on that basis into groups
rates each group separately as provided in the regulations for the
tournament. (In the absence of a relevant regulation the Director
selects and announces his method.)
LAW 88 - AWARD OF INDEMNITY POINTS
See Law 12C2.
LAW 89 - RECTIFICATION IN INDIVIDUAL EVENTS
See Law 12C3.
LAW 90 - PROCEDURAL PENALTIES
A. Director’s Authority
The Director, in addition to implementing the rectifications in
Laws, may also assess procedural penalties for any offence that
delays or obstructs the game, inconveniences other contestants,
correct procedure, or requires the award of an adjusted score at
B. Offences Subject to Procedural Penalty
The following are examples of offences subject to procedural
(but the offences are not limited to these):
arrival of a contestant after the specified starting time.
unduly slow play by a contestant.
discussion of the bidding, play or result of a board, which
overheard at another table.
unauthorized comparison of scores with another contestant.
touching or handling of cards belonging to another player
placing one or more cards in an incorrect pocket of the
errors in procedure (such as failure to count cards in one’s
playing the wrong board, etc.) that require an adjusted score
failure to comply promptly with tournament regulations or
instructions of the Director.
LAW 91 - PENALIZE OR SUSPEND
A. Director’s Powers
In performing his duty to maintain order and discipline, the
empowered to assess disciplinary penalties in points or to suspend a
contestant for the current session or any part thereof. The
decision under this clause is final and may not be overruled by an
appeals committee (see Law 93B3).
B. Right to Disqualify
The Director is empowered to disqualify a contestant for cause, subject to approval by the Tournament Organizer.
LAW 92 - RIGHT TO APPEAL
A. Contestant’s Right
A contestant or his captain may appeal for a review of any ruling
at his table by the Director. Any such appeal, if deemed to lack
may be the subject of a sanction imposed by regulation.
B. Time of Appeal
The right to request or appeal a Director’s ruling expires 30
after the official score has been made available for inspection
the Tournament Organizer has specified a different time period.
C. How to Appeal
All appeals shall be made through the Director.
D. Concurrence of Appellants
An appeal shall not be heard unless
in a pairs event both members of the partnership concur in
appeal (but in an individual contest an appellant does not
in a team event the team captain concurs in making the appeal.
LAW 93 - PROCEDURES OF APPEAL
A. No Appeals Committee
The Director in charge shall hear and rule upon all appeals if
no Appeals Committee (or alternative arrangement under Law 80B2(k)),
if such cannot operate without disturbing the orderly progress of
B. Appeals Committee Available
If a committee is available,
The Director in charge shall hear and rule upon such part of
appeal as deals solely with the Law or regulations. His ruling
appealed to the committee.
The Director in charge shall refer all other appeals to the
In adjudicating appeals the committee may exercise all
assigned by these Laws to the Director, except that the
not overrule the Director in charge on a point of law or
on exercise of his Law 91 disciplinary powers. (The committee
recommend to the Director in charge that he change such a
C. Further Possibilities of Appeal
Regulating Authorities may establish procedures for further
after the foregoing procedures have been exhausted. Any such
appeal, if deemed to lack merit, may be the subject of a
imposed by regulation.
The Director in charge or the Appeals Committee may refer a
for later consideration by the Regulating Authority. The
Authority has authority to resolve any matter finally.
(a) Notwithstanding 1 and 2 above, where deeming it crucial
progress of the tournament the Regulating Authority may assign
responsibility for dealing finally with any appeal to the
tournament Appeals Committee and, along with the parties to the
is then bound by the outcome.
(b) With due notice given to the contestants a Regulating
may authorize the omission or modification of such stages as it
of the appeals process set out in these Laws.*
* The Regulating Authority is responsible for compliance with any national law that may affect its action.